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Psychology (2,716)
PSYC 2301 (154)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2301
Professor
Tarry Ahuja

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Description
Pain and its management Overview - Types of pain - Factors influencing pain - Measuring pain - Theories of pain - Pain management Pain - Two classifications • Acute pain (temporary) • Chronic pain (last longer) - Acute pain: • Caused by soft tissue damage • Infection • Inflammation - Chronic pain • Linked with long-term illness or disease • May have no apparent cause • Can trigger other issues • Difficult to assess and diagnose - Types of chronic pain: • Chronic benign – 6 month+, intractable to treatment  Low back pain • Recurrent acute pain – series of intermittent episodes  Migraine, tmj • Chronic progressive – 6 month+, increasing severity  Rheumatoid arthritis Prevalence and impact - Affects 1 in 10 Canadians (~1.5M) - Rates are even higher in those over 65, and women - Costs in health care utilization and lost productivity are approximately 10 billion $ annually - Over 4 billion $ spent annually on OTC meds Why is pain difficult to study? - Factors that influence symptoms can include: • Cultural differences  Some cultures report pain sooner and more intensely  Linked to cultural norms • Gender  Women are more sensitive to pain  Menstrual cycle is an indirect contributor  Linked to differences in emotional processing of pain • Coping styles  Catastrophizing heightens pains experience  Predicts greater post-surgical pain  More intense labor pain  Resilience and positive emotions lowers pain Measuring pain - Personal report of pain (acute/chronic) can be very subjective - There is no “gold standard” in measuring pain outcomes - More commonly used assessment tools include: • Verbal reports  Pt uses their experience and vocabulary to describe pain  Throbbing pain vs. shooting pain vs. dull ache  McGill Pain Questionnaire  Pain Catastrophizing Scale • Pain behavior  Observable behaviors that arise from pain  Facial and audible expressions of distress  Distortions in posture and gait  Negative affect (get irritated, annoyed, or angry at pain)  Avoidance of activity - Pain is viewed as a complex biopsychosocial event involving: • Psychological • Behavioral • Physiological • How you think psychologically and how you act behaviorally will impact your physiological pain. This would directly impact the diagnosis of your pain. If we can address the other parts of the pain we will have a better impact on diagnosing the pain and curing it. Physiology of pain - Nociception • Refers to the system that carries signals of damage and pain to the brain • Nociceptive neurons have cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia. These ganglia will send signal up to the brain • Can detect mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli
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