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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

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Lecture 10 Mental imagery - Picture memory - Dual-coding theory - Dual-coding and individual differences - Functional equivalence I. Picture memory - Sheppard • Recognition memory: 200 pictures  Shown stimuli (pictures) and asked if they have seen it previously • 98% correct - Nickerson • 600 pictures • 1 day later: 92% • 1 year later: 63% - Leehey • Hemispheric specialization (for words vs. pictures) • Pictures/words presented to LVF (RH) vs. RVF (LH)  VF= visual field • Results:  Words: RVF (LH) > LVF (RH)  Left hemisphere better at processing words than right hemisphere  Pictures: LVF (RH) > RVF (LH)  Right hemisphere better at processing pictures than left hemisphere • Suggests:  Verbal and nonverbal stimuli processed using different codes and different structures II. Dual-coding theory (Paivio) - Two ways to represent (code) info: • Verbal • Visual images - Type of code • Nature of information  Some information makes sense to use visual coding • Task  Benefit from mental image? • Individual differences  Some people readily generate mental images - Paivio concrete vs. abstract words • Rate imagability (house…………………..justice)  House is highly imagable, but not justice (abstract word) • Match on meaningfulness, frequency (how common it is) • Paired association task:  H - H car – house  H - L car – justice  L - H justice – car  L - L justice – dignity • Recall: H-H > H-L > L-H > L-L • Suggests:  Compound image  People put 2 words together. Ex: car-house, car parked in my house  Note: compare H-L > L-H  Better at H-L than L-H because the cue is highly imagable and accesses compound words • 1 item provides cue(s) to reinstate compound image III. Dual-coding and individual differences - Assessment: • VVIQ (Marks)  Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire  Asked how clearly the image was generated in your head • QMI (Betts)  Questionnaire of Mental Imagery  How clear image was. Includes color, size, form • TVIC (Gordon)  Test of Visual Imagery Control  Generate images that float around in our head Evidence: memory - Morris and Gale • Concrete words (house, dog, tree) vs. abstract (dignity, serendipity) • High-imagers benefit from concrete words • Low-imagers show no difference between concrete and abstract Evidence: mental practice - Richardson and Start
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