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Lecture 9

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PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

Lecture 9 Representation of knowledge - Types of knowledge - Semantic memory: organization - Models of semantic memory Types of knowledge Types of knowledge Episodic vs. Procedural - Cohen and Corkin • Subjects:  Normals vs. amnesics • Task:  “tower of Hanoi task”  3 pegs and 4 disks (small, medium, large, extra large) • Results:  Normals:  Learns set of procedures  Transfer  Have episodic memory  Amnesics:  Can learn task (procedures)  Transfer of training  No episodic memory! • Suggests:  Dissociation between episodic and procedural memory Semantic memory: organization Semantic memory: organization - Semantic knowledge is highly organized • E.g.: psychoanalysis  would not work if memory was not organized • We wish to examine and formalize Tulving - List of unrelated words - People do better and better after each trial - Interesting part people will subjectively organize Models of semantic memory Models of semantic memory - Feature model: • Semantic feature-comparison model - Two network models: • Hierarchical network model • Spreading activation model I. Semantic Feature-Comparison (Rips, Shoben and Smith) Structure - Knowledge consists of sets of features • Bird = wings, feathers, beaks, flies - Features weighed on n-dimensional space • Small ------------------------------------------------ large • Defining: important  Ex: lots of emphasis. Bird has feathers • Characteristic: less important Process/decision - How people would decide that something is something else - For question is a robin a bird? - Encoding • Features for bird retrieved and for robin - Stage 1 • First decision stage • Comparison of all features associated with robin and bird • Generate index of similarity/overlap (x)  X has a high value. So high that the index would be greater than some upper criterion (Cupper  If there is a really large amount of overlap, you sayYES a robin is a bird!  X has a low value. If it doesn’t even meet the lowest criterion, then just say no  X is lower than upper criterion, but higher than lowest criterion.  Ex: maybe an ostrich is a bird nd  Can’t make a quick yes or no, so go to 2 stage - Stage 2 • Compare defining features • Alittle bit of overlap, but only with defining features  Plane has wings, but doesn’t lay eggs Evidence - Typicality ratings • All birds have most defining features, so assume that typ
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