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Lecture 3

SOCI 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Joe Fresh, Mcdonaldization, Industrial Revolution


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 1002
Professor
Christian Pasiak
Lecture
3

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Going worldwide
§
McDonalds
Economic growth, financial, etc.
§
The adaptation of businesses across the country and outside if
that
The acknowledging of others in other societies
§
Globalization occurs as people and institutions across the planet
become increasingly aware of, and dependent on, one another
What is globalization?
There are debates about how it should be defined ….
When did globalization emerge?
Introduction
The industrial revolution
§
Clocks -idea of standardizing time (time is money concept)
§
What types of modern technologies shape the contours of
globalization?
Technologies
Colonialism -large empires trying to expand them while
trying to protect their land from others
§
How does politics play a part in determining various dimensions
of how/whether globalization spreads?
Politics
Manufacturing of goods and services + labour
§
Free Trade (NAFTA) -cheaply produced goods not taxed
§
How has the new international division of labor shaped
globalization processes?
Economic
-
How Does Globalization Spread?
Making parts in China then shipping to
America for assembly because the parts
would be more expensive to make part in
America
Can split the labour force based on competition
and profit
®
Foreign labour and foreign production
Skills and advances in design, technology and
management
World markets
Massive advertising campaigns
They rely heavily on:
§
CEOs benefit the most from these corporations
Large businesses with head offices in rich countries that increasingly
rely on -(also known as Multi-National)
-
Don’t like the rules? Move your company.
®
Basically insight fear on the government, using
the economic growth of that city/state/country to
your advantage
®
Their company (wherever the head office is) brings in
a lot of money to the country
Not autonomous
§
Don't rely on national governments …. Or are they?
There are increasingly autonomous from national governments or
are they?
-
Transnational Corporations
Victoria's Secret: lingerie is often made by prisoners in the
federal prison system
§
Joe Fresh: cheap labour overseas then shipped to
Canada/America
§
What are some examples of commodities or products that are
the result of a global commodity chain?
Exploiting people -low wages for extremely poor work
conditions
§
Similar to eating organic vs. genetically modified foods
Not many people can afford domestic, fair trade product,
etc.
§
What are the ethical implications?
A worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end
result is a finished commodity
-
Global Commodity Chains
A form of rationalization that values principles of efficiency,
calculability, and predictability
§
Applied to all spheres of life
§
Claim for the homogenizing effect of globalization
§
George Ritzers term McDonaldizationinvolves “the process by
which the principles of fast food restaurants are coming to
dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as
the rest of the world (1999:1).
This is the process of taking principles from fast-food restaurants and
applying them to everyday life
-
McDonaldization
Glocalization thesis: globalization has led to the simultaneous
homogenization of some aspects of life and the strengthening of
some local differences
-
Sociologist John Urry provides some insight into how this is
sometimes practiced, describing his concept of the tourist gazeas a
set of expectations travelers set on local populations to achieve an
“authenticexperience (often informed by racism and discrimination),
whereby locals reflect back the gaze” for financial gain
-
Regionalization thesis: the world is divided into different and often
competing economic, political, and cultural areas, which are globally
integrated to different degrees
-
Alternatives to the McDonaldization Thesis
The Gini coefficient index of inequality for individuals world
wide is about 0.7
§
Measuring layers of inequality within a society
Global Index of Stratification -meaning "different layers"
-
"Economic under-development results from poor countries
lacking Western attributes. These attributes include values and
mentalities, business practices, levels of investment capital and
stable governments."
Modernization Theory
-
"Economic under-development is the result of exploitative
relationships between rich and poor countries"
This involves problems with substantial foreign investments,
support for authoritarian governments, and mounting debt
Dependency Theory
-
Competing Perspectives on Development
Is development a universal common good?
-
Locals unable to compete with foreign companies investing in
competing land
Restrictions on where local goods can be bought and sold as
competing foreign good flood the market
How might it affect local families and economies
-
Discontentment and Development
Imperialism: the economic domination of one country by another
-
What are some classic and contemporary examples of colonialism
and imperialism?
How might global commodity chains be involved in perpetuating
inequalities?
Colonialism: the direct political control of one country by another
-
The Rich Get Richer: Globalization, Power and Exploitation
Immanuel Wallerstein's model emphasizes the role of "core, peripheral,
and semi-peripheral" nations
-
Categorizing Nations on the Global Stage
Neoliberal Globalization: policies that promote private control of
industry, minimal government interference in the running of the
economy, encouragement of foreign investment, and the removal of
taxes, tariffs, restrictions and/or regulations that discourage
international trade
-
The Dominant Globalization Rationale
Evidence suggests foreign aid may not be a universal good.
-
Critiques of some foreign aid programs include:
-
Aid accompanied by high overhead and administrative costs
-
Aid may not involve donation of high-priority items
Aid may create expensive dependences on nonindigenous items
e.g. cereals
Aid may discourage export-production of items like corn and rice
when countries like the US are trying to expand their own market
Aid given on conditions
-
Global Intervention Strategies: Foreign Aid
Burden of debt prevents countries from focusing on building
economic infrastructure, improving health, educating population
Debt Cancellation: when rich countries write off the debt owed to
them by developing countries in recognition of historic injustices
-
Tariff Reductions: relaxation of taxes or embargoes on foreign goods
-
Alternative Relief Strategies
War/militaristic occupation and conflict: politics by other means?
Democratic Globalization: promoted according to the rationale that
democracy lowers inequality and promotes economic growth
-
Other Dimensions of Globalization
Globalization, Inequality and Development
Monday,)January)25,)2016
2:43)PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Going worldwide
§
McDonalds
Economic growth, financial, etc.
§
The adaptation of businesses across the country and outside if
that
The acknowledging of others in other societies
§
Globalization occurs as people and institutions across the planet
become increasingly aware of, and dependent on, one another
What is globalization?
-
There are debates about how it should be defined ….
When did globalization emerge?
-
Introduction
The industrial revolution
§
Clocks -idea of standardizing time (time is money concept)
§
What types of modern technologies shape the contours of
globalization?
Technologies
-
Colonialism -large empires trying to expand them while
trying to protect their land from others
§
How does politics play a part in determining various dimensions
of how/whether globalization spreads?
Politics
-
Manufacturing of goods and services + labour
§
Free Trade (NAFTA) -cheaply produced goods not taxed
§
How has the new international division of labor shaped
globalization processes?
Economic
-
How Does Globalization Spread?
Making parts in China then shipping to
America for assembly because the parts
would be more expensive to make part in
America
Can split the labour force based on competition
and profit
®
Foreign labour and foreign production
Skills and advances in design, technology and
management
World markets
Massive advertising campaigns
They rely heavily on:
§
CEOs benefit the most from these corporations
Large businesses with head offices in rich countries that increasingly
rely on -(also known as Multi-National)
-
Don’t like the rules? Move your company.
®
Basically insight fear on the government, using
the economic growth of that city/state/country to
your advantage
®
Their company (wherever the head office is) brings in
a lot of money to the country
Not autonomous
§
Don't rely on national governments …. Or are they?
There are increasingly autonomous from national governments or
are they?
-
Transnational Corporations
Victoria's Secret: lingerie is often made by prisoners in the
federal prison system
§
Joe Fresh: cheap labour overseas then shipped to
Canada/America
§
What are some examples of commodities or products that are
the result of a global commodity chain?
Exploiting people -low wages for extremely poor work
conditions
§
Similar to eating organic vs. genetically modified foods
Not many people can afford domestic, fair trade product,
etc.
§
What are the ethical implications?
A worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end
result is a finished commodity
-
Global Commodity Chains
A form of rationalization that values principles of efficiency,
calculability, and predictability
§
Applied to all spheres of life
§
Claim for the homogenizing effect of globalization
§
George Ritzers term McDonaldizationinvolves “the process by
which the principles of fast food restaurants are coming to
dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as
the rest of the world (1999:1).
This is the process of taking principles from fast-food restaurants and
applying them to everyday life
-
McDonaldization
Glocalization thesis: globalization has led to the simultaneous
homogenization of some aspects of life and the strengthening of
some local differences
-
Sociologist John Urry provides some insight into how this is
sometimes practiced, describing his concept of the tourist gazeas a
set of expectations travelers set on local populations to achieve an
“authenticexperience (often informed by racism and discrimination),
whereby locals reflect back the gaze” for financial gain
-
Regionalization thesis: the world is divided into different and often
competing economic, political, and cultural areas, which are globally
integrated to different degrees
-
Alternatives to the McDonaldization Thesis
The Gini coefficient index of inequality for individuals world
wide is about 0.7
§
Measuring layers of inequality within a society
Global Index of Stratification -meaning "different layers"
-
"Economic under-development results from poor countries
lacking Western attributes. These attributes include values and
mentalities, business practices, levels of investment capital and
stable governments."
Modernization Theory
-
"Economic under-development is the result of exploitative
relationships between rich and poor countries"
This involves problems with substantial foreign investments,
support for authoritarian governments, and mounting debt
Dependency Theory
-
Competing Perspectives on Development
Is development a universal common good?
-
Locals unable to compete with foreign companies investing in
competing land
Restrictions on where local goods can be bought and sold as
competing foreign good flood the market
How might it affect local families and economies
-
Discontentment and Development
Imperialism: the economic domination of one country by another
-
What are some classic and contemporary examples of colonialism
and imperialism?
How might global commodity chains be involved in perpetuating
inequalities?
Colonialism: the direct political control of one country by another
-
The Rich Get Richer: Globalization, Power and Exploitation
Immanuel Wallerstein's model emphasizes the role of "core, peripheral,
and semi-peripheral" nations
-
Categorizing Nations on the Global Stage
Neoliberal Globalization: policies that promote private control of
industry, minimal government interference in the running of the
economy, encouragement of foreign investment, and the removal of
taxes, tariffs, restrictions and/or regulations that discourage
international trade
-
The Dominant Globalization Rationale
Evidence suggests foreign aid may not be a universal good.
-
Critiques of some foreign aid programs include:
-
Aid accompanied by high overhead and administrative costs
-
Aid may not involve donation of high-priority items
Aid may create expensive dependences on nonindigenous items
e.g. cereals
Aid may discourage export-production of items like corn and rice
when countries like the US are trying to expand their own market
Aid given on conditions
-
Global Intervention Strategies: Foreign Aid
Burden of debt prevents countries from focusing on building
economic infrastructure, improving health, educating population
Debt Cancellation: when rich countries write off the debt owed to
them by developing countries in recognition of historic injustices
-
Tariff Reductions: relaxation of taxes or embargoes on foreign goods
-
Alternative Relief Strategies
War/militaristic occupation and conflict: politics by other means?
Democratic Globalization: promoted according to the rationale that
democracy lowers inequality and promotes economic growth
-
Other Dimensions of Globalization
Globalization, Inequality and Development
Monday,)January)25,)2016 2:43)PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Going worldwide
§
McDonalds
Economic growth, financial, etc.
§
The adaptation of businesses across the country and outside if
that
The acknowledging of others in other societies
§
Globalization occurs as people and institutions across the planet
become increasingly aware of, and dependent on, one another
What is globalization?
-
There are debates about how it should be defined ….
When did globalization emerge?
-
Introduction
The industrial revolution
§
Clocks -idea of standardizing time (time is money concept)
§
What types of modern technologies shape the contours of
globalization?
Technologies
-
Colonialism -large empires trying to expand them while
trying to protect their land from others
§
How does politics play a part in determining various dimensions
of how/whether globalization spreads?
Politics
-
Manufacturing of goods and services + labour
§
Free Trade (NAFTA) -cheaply produced goods not taxed
§
How has the new international division of labor shaped
globalization processes?
Economic
How Does Globalization Spread?
Making parts in China then shipping to
America for assembly because the parts
would be more expensive to make part in
America
Can split the labour force based on competition
and profit
®
Foreign labour and foreign production
Skills and advances in design, technology and
management
World markets
Massive advertising campaigns
They rely heavily on:
§
CEOs benefit the most from these corporations
Large businesses with head offices in rich countries that increasingly
rely on -(also known as Multi-National)
Don’t like the rules? Move your company.
®
Basically insight fear on the government, using
the economic growth of that city/state/country to
your advantage
®
Their company (wherever the head office is) brings in
a lot of money to the country
Not autonomous
§
Don't rely on national governments …. Or are they?
There are increasingly autonomous from national governments or
are they?
Transnational Corporations
Victoria's Secret: lingerie is often made by prisoners in the
federal prison system
§
Joe Fresh: cheap labour overseas then shipped to
Canada/America
§
What are some examples of commodities or products that are
the result of a global commodity chain?
Exploiting people -low wages for extremely poor work
conditions
§
Similar to eating organic vs. genetically modified foods
Not many people can afford domestic, fair trade product,
etc.
§
What are the ethical implications?
A worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end
result is a finished commodity
-
Global Commodity Chains
A form of rationalization that values principles of efficiency,
calculability, and predictability
§
Applied to all spheres of life
§
Claim for the homogenizing effect of globalization
§
George Ritzers term McDonaldizationinvolves “the process by
which the principles of fast food restaurants are coming to
dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as
the rest of the world (1999:1).
This is the process of taking principles from fast-food restaurants and
applying them to everyday life
-
McDonaldization
Glocalization thesis: globalization has led to the simultaneous
homogenization of some aspects of life and the strengthening of
some local differences
-
Sociologist John Urry provides some insight into how this is
sometimes practiced, describing his concept of the tourist gazeas a
set of expectations travelers set on local populations to achieve an
“authenticexperience (often informed by racism and discrimination),
whereby locals reflect back the gaze” for financial gain
-
Regionalization thesis: the world is divided into different and often
competing economic, political, and cultural areas, which are globally
integrated to different degrees
-
Alternatives to the McDonaldization Thesis
The Gini coefficient index of inequality for individuals world
wide is about 0.7
§
Measuring layers of inequality within a society
Global Index of Stratification -meaning "different layers"
-
"Economic under-development results from poor countries
lacking Western attributes. These attributes include values and
mentalities, business practices, levels of investment capital and
stable governments."
Modernization Theory
-
"Economic under-development is the result of exploitative
relationships between rich and poor countries"
This involves problems with substantial foreign investments,
support for authoritarian governments, and mounting debt
Dependency Theory
-
Competing Perspectives on Development
Is development a universal common good?
-
Locals unable to compete with foreign companies investing in
competing land
Restrictions on where local goods can be bought and sold as
competing foreign good flood the market
How might it affect local families and economies
-
Discontentment and Development
Imperialism: the economic domination of one country by another
-
What are some classic and contemporary examples of colonialism
and imperialism?
How might global commodity chains be involved in perpetuating
inequalities?
Colonialism: the direct political control of one country by another
-
The Rich Get Richer: Globalization, Power and Exploitation
Immanuel Wallerstein's model emphasizes the role of "core, peripheral,
and semi-peripheral" nations
-
Categorizing Nations on the Global Stage
Neoliberal Globalization: policies that promote private control of
industry, minimal government interference in the running of the
economy, encouragement of foreign investment, and the removal of
taxes, tariffs, restrictions and/or regulations that discourage
international trade
-
The Dominant Globalization Rationale
Evidence suggests foreign aid may not be a universal good.
-
Critiques of some foreign aid programs include:
-
Aid accompanied by high overhead and administrative costs
-
Aid may not involve donation of high-priority items
Aid may create expensive dependences on nonindigenous items
e.g. cereals
Aid may discourage export-production of items like corn and rice
when countries like the US are trying to expand their own market
Aid given on conditions
-
Global Intervention Strategies: Foreign Aid
Burden of debt prevents countries from focusing on building
economic infrastructure, improving health, educating population
Debt Cancellation: when rich countries write off the debt owed to
them by developing countries in recognition of historic injustices
-
Tariff Reductions: relaxation of taxes or embargoes on foreign goods
-
Alternative Relief Strategies
War/militaristic occupation and conflict: politics by other means?
Democratic Globalization: promoted according to the rationale that
democracy lowers inequality and promotes economic growth
-
Other Dimensions of Globalization
Globalization, Inequality and Development
Monday,)January)25,)2016 2:43)PM
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