Class Notes (839,315)
Canada (511,260)
ANTH 1032 (13)
Lecture 14

Lecture 14.doc

5 Pages
74 Views

Department
anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1032
Professor
Trevor Orchard

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Description
ANTH 1032 Introduction to Biological Anthropology and Archaeology Pre-Modern Humans (Continued) FROM LAST CLASS Early Archaic homo sapiens • Middle Pleistocene ( 780- 1530 KYA) • Mixture of “ erecuts” and “ modern” traits • May represent one or several extinct specieis ( lumpers vs splitters) o Homo antecessor ( 750 KYA in Spain) o Homo heidelbergensis ( 600 KYA – 125 KYS in Africa, Asia and Europe) o Possibly persistent in homo erectus in Asia Diagnostic Features: early Archaic Homo sapiens  Taller, leaner bodies. Less robust  Reduction in cranial & postcranial robusticity  Size in the bones of the skull ar3 getting smaller  Increase in brain size (average of 1283cm )...  Widest part of brain case shifted to parietal regions.  Shifting closer to the front of the skull  Rear of cranial vault becomes more vertical Homo antecessor • Gran Dolina, Spain o 750,000 years ago o last common ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans? Homo heidelbergensis  850 – 200 kya  C.C. = 1300 cc  less robust than H. erectus; more robust than modern Homo.  Associated with both Acheulean-type technology and later lithic industries African Archaic Homo sapiens  Broken Hill (Kabwe), Africa (600,000 – 125,000 ya)  Mixture of older & more recent traits: ◦ Supraorbital torus (brow ridge) ◦ Low cranial vault ◦ Thinner cranial bones ◦ Brain size – 1300 cc THIS CLASS Late archaic Homo sapiens – The Neandertals  About 130,000 to 28,000 ya  First found in Neander Valley in Germany – 1856  evolved from H. heidelbergensis (?) Early Neandertal Finds: La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France)  The first discoveries were not typical Neandertals’ they were all distinct in one way or another  Discovered in 1908  50-yr old male ◦ No teeth – cared for ◦ had spinal arthritis (= stooped posture)  Extremely robust; bent leg bones  M. Boule emphasized differences compared to modern humans The Neandertals  Early interpretations influenced ideas about Neandertals for some time: ◦ fossils were deformed or aberrant  “Cave man” idea that was popular until the 1970s Neandertals: New Perspectives  Not as brutish as previously thought  “classic” Neandertal traits also found in medieval skulls from N. Europe The Neandertals – cranial characteristics 3  Cranial .Capacity. = 1520 cm ◦ Greatly exceeds average human C.C.  Slightly projecting nose and teeth (prognathism)  Prominent brow ridges (double-arched)  “swollen” appearance to mid face ◦ large front teeth (heavily used) ◦ large noses (needed to warm cold air) The Neandertals – post-cranial features  extremely muscular ◦ highly active, & athletic ◦ Arms exceptionally powerful  Robust & dense limb bones  Relatively short limbs (adaptation to cold climates) ◦ Allen’s Rule!  Very demanding lifestyle... Neandertal Hunting  Hunting style implied from skeletal trauma: ◦ Most adult Neandertal specimens exhibit healed fractures or broken bones. ◦ Injuries most consistent with rodeo cowboys. ◦ Few specimens exist of people over the age of 30.  Close-range hunting – thrusting spears, clubs, rocks Hypotheses About Distinctive “Classic” Morphology?  Adaptation to cold climate (glacial period)  Cranium reflects “industrial use of the teeth”  Isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of glacial climate  Combination of all three Neandertals – Anterior tooth wear  Wear on front teeth – used as a tool  Manufacture clothing, to hold on to things they are working on with their hands Neandertal Language  Evidence: ◦ Fully modern Broca’s Area ◦ Ful
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit