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Lecture 14

Lecture 14.doc

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ANTH 1032
Trevor Orchard

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ANTH 1032 Introduction to Biological Anthropology and Archaeology Pre-Modern Humans (Continued) FROM LAST CLASS Early Archaic homo sapiens • Middle Pleistocene ( 780- 1530 KYA) • Mixture of “ erecuts” and “ modern” traits • May represent one or several extinct specieis ( lumpers vs splitters) o Homo antecessor ( 750 KYA in Spain) o Homo heidelbergensis ( 600 KYA – 125 KYS in Africa, Asia and Europe) o Possibly persistent in homo erectus in Asia Diagnostic Features: early Archaic Homo sapiens  Taller, leaner bodies. Less robust  Reduction in cranial & postcranial robusticity  Size in the bones of the skull ar3 getting smaller  Increase in brain size (average of 1283cm )...  Widest part of brain case shifted to parietal regions.  Shifting closer to the front of the skull  Rear of cranial vault becomes more vertical Homo antecessor • Gran Dolina, Spain o 750,000 years ago o last common ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans? Homo heidelbergensis  850 – 200 kya  C.C. = 1300 cc  less robust than H. erectus; more robust than modern Homo.  Associated with both Acheulean-type technology and later lithic industries African Archaic Homo sapiens  Broken Hill (Kabwe), Africa (600,000 – 125,000 ya)  Mixture of older & more recent traits: ◦ Supraorbital torus (brow ridge) ◦ Low cranial vault ◦ Thinner cranial bones ◦ Brain size – 1300 cc THIS CLASS Late archaic Homo sapiens – The Neandertals  About 130,000 to 28,000 ya  First found in Neander Valley in Germany – 1856  evolved from H. heidelbergensis (?) Early Neandertal Finds: La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France)  The first discoveries were not typical Neandertals’ they were all distinct in one way or another  Discovered in 1908  50-yr old male ◦ No teeth – cared for ◦ had spinal arthritis (= stooped posture)  Extremely robust; bent leg bones  M. Boule emphasized differences compared to modern humans The Neandertals  Early interpretations influenced ideas about Neandertals for some time: ◦ fossils were deformed or aberrant  “Cave man” idea that was popular until the 1970s Neandertals: New Perspectives  Not as brutish as previously thought  “classic” Neandertal traits also found in medieval skulls from N. Europe The Neandertals – cranial characteristics 3  Cranial .Capacity. = 1520 cm ◦ Greatly exceeds average human C.C.  Slightly projecting nose and teeth (prognathism)  Prominent brow ridges (double-arched)  “swollen” appearance to mid face ◦ large front teeth (heavily used) ◦ large noses (needed to warm cold air) The Neandertals – post-cranial features  extremely muscular ◦ highly active, & athletic ◦ Arms exceptionally powerful  Robust & dense limb bones  Relatively short limbs (adaptation to cold climates) ◦ Allen’s Rule!  Very demanding lifestyle... Neandertal Hunting  Hunting style implied from skeletal trauma: ◦ Most adult Neandertal specimens exhibit healed fractures or broken bones. ◦ Injuries most consistent with rodeo cowboys. ◦ Few specimens exist of people over the age of 30.  Close-range hunting – thrusting spears, clubs, rocks Hypotheses About Distinctive “Classic” Morphology?  Adaptation to cold climate (glacial period)  Cranium reflects “industrial use of the teeth”  Isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of glacial climate  Combination of all three Neandertals – Anterior tooth wear  Wear on front teeth – used as a tool  Manufacture clothing, to hold on to things they are working on with their hands Neandertal Language  Evidence: ◦ Fully modern Broca’s Area ◦ Ful
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