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Lecture

FRHD 2110 Lecture Notes - Physical Therapy, Orthotics, Hand Washing


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2110
Professor
Agnieszka Woznia

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Chapter 14 notes
- Children with physical disabilities or other health impairments are those whore physical
limitations or health problems interfere with school attendance or learning to such an extent
that special services, training, equipment, materials, or facilities are required
- Characteristics of children with physical disabilities are extremely varied
Congenital anomalies defects born with or they may acquire exceptionalities through accident or
disease after birth
Some physical disabilities are mild and transitory, others are profound and progressive, ending
in total incapacitation and early death
There are 3 categories of physical disabilities: orthopedic, neuromotor impairments and
musculoskeletal disorders
Acute: very serious or severe but with treatment it will resolve, person can recover
Chronic: one that is ongoing, it does not resolve; example: cerebral palsy
Episodic: recurs, but person is able to function normally most the time, happens in successive
periods, for example: asthma or epilepsy
Progressive: becomes more and more serious with time, usually involving more and more
complication or deterioration; example: muscular dystrophy
Chronic conditions defined by Stats Canada (2002) conditions that limit the kind or amount of
activities an individual with one or more chronic health condition or disease includes individuals
with health and physical disabilities
- Fewer mortalities among individuals with severe or multiple exceptionalities and those with
severe and chronic illnesses/injuries due to improvements in medical care, doesn’t mean that
there is a lesser percentage of people who have these disabilities
Neuromotor impairments
- Caused by injury to the brain or spinal cord, it also affects the ability to move parts of one’s body
(motor impairment) associated with injury to the brain before, during or after birth
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) injury to the brain, resulting in total or partial exceptionality or
psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language,
attention, reasoning, memory, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory or perceptual and
motor disabilities, psychosocial behaviour, physical functions, information processing, or speech
Brain injury can happen from a variety of non-traumatic causes as well as: hypoxia (reduced oxygen to
the brain, near drowning), infection of the brain/brain linings, stroke, tumour, metabolic disorder
(liver/kidney disease), or toxic chemicals or drugs

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** when a child’s NVS is damaged, no matter what the cause, muscular weakness or paralysis is almost
always one of the symptoms due to this, they cannot move around as well as other can so they require
special accommodations for their exceptionalities
Cerebral Palsy not a disease, contagious or progressive
- Considered part of a syndrome that includes motor dysfunction, psychological dysfunction,
seizures, and emotional or behavioural disorders due to brain damage
- CP refers to paralysis, weakness, lack of coordination, and/or other motor dysfunction bc of
damage to the child’s brain before it has matured
- No cure
Causes/types:
- Anything that can damage the brain during its development can cause CP (oxygen dep.,
poisoning, cerebral bleeding, or direct trauma = possible causes)
- More often seen to children born to mothers in poor socio-economic circumstances ( bad pre
and postnatal care, malnutrition, enviro hazards)
Quadriplegia all 4 limbs involved
Paraplegia only legs involved
Spasticity stiffness or tenseness of muscles and inaccurate voluntary movement
Choreoathetoid abrupt, involuntary movements and difficulty maintaining balance
Atonic floppiness or lack of muscle tone
CP is a developmental disability multi-disabling condition more complex than just motor disability
alone
- Multifaceted exceptionalities
- IQ can be normal or even above normal but general population is said to be lower then average
for children with CP
Epilepsy seizure disorder
Seizure an abnormal discharge of electrical energy in certain brain cells effect may be loss of
consciousness, involuntary movements, or abnormal sensory phenomena effects of seizures depend
on location of the cells in which the discharge starts and how far it spreads
Epilepsy recurrent seizures occur more often in children with developmental disabilities than in
children without
Causes/types:
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- Can be caused by any type of damage to the brain
- Most common cause is hypoxia lack of oxygen to brain, low blood sugar, infections, and
physical trauma
- Educators should note that seizure differ along some of the following 6 dimensions:
o Duration time they last
o Frequency how frequently they occur
o Onset what sets them off
o Movements may cause minor motor symptoms or major convulsions
o Causes many are unknown
o Associated exceptionalities may be linked with exceptionalities
o Control drugs to stop them
Among children with epilepsy, most have avg or higher intelligence unless they have other
exceptionalities
- Ignorance about seizures and first aid are the most common misconceptions about epilepsy
- General and special educators are expected to make sure there is no ignorance and prejudice
toward these people
- Special educators are expected to be able to handle people who have epilepsy, and to record
the length of the seizure as well as the type of activity the child was engaged in before the
seizure occurred (these things help physicians treat their patients)
- Most with epilepsy do not have learning disabilities (some do), but most have behavioural
and/or emotional disorders
Spina Bifida + other spinal cord injuries
- Neurological damage can affect only the spinal cord in some instances and leave the brain
unharmed
- Can occur before or after birth, it affects the person’s ability to move below the site of the injury
Spina bifida congenital midline defect which results from failure of the bony spinal column to close
completely during fetal development may occur anywhere from head to lower end of spine
- Surgery in early infancy can be performed to close spinal opening but cannot repair the damage
to the nerves
- Causes = unknown but one of the most common physical disabilities by birth defects
- One of the only differences in spina bifida and other spinal injuries is that the child/person has
to get accustomed to the exceptionality
- Educational implications are varied bc there are many types of spinal cord injuries depending on
where they are effected and what they are able to do/control
- Monitored carefully due to lack of sensation they might have in some parts of their body they
may need to be adjusted throughout the school day aswell
- Teachers should also know what to do for ‘clean intermittent catheterization’
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