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Lecture 13

Psych lecture 13.docx

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PSYC 1000
Lisa Giguere

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Psych lecture 13 October 23, 2012 Learning and Memory main types of learning: 1. classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction 2. operant conditioning: changing behavior choices in response to consequences (exoectancies) 3. operant (observational) learning: acquiring new behaviors and information through observation and information, rather than by direct experience Learning without Thinking Behaviourism: started with proponents that mental life was much less important than behavior as a foundation for psychological science (B.F. Skinner, 1904-1990) J.B. Watson (1878- 19580 1. how do we learn through associations? - ivan Pavlov - nobel peace price 1904 studying digestion - dogs salivated at the sound of a bell Before conditioning: - Neutral stimuli> no response - Unconditioned stimulus> unconditioned response (UR) dog salivated During conditioning: - Neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus> unconditioned response (salivates) After conditioning: - conditioned stimulus> conditioned response(dog salivates) The Language of Classical Conditioning  Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus which does not trigger a response  Unconditioned stimulus (US) and response (UR)- a stimulus which triggers a response aturally, before/ without any conditioning  Conditioned stimulus (CS)- a stimulus that will trigger the learned CR  Conditoned response (CR)- the learned response triggered by the CS Properties of Classical Conditioning i. Acquisition - acquire the association between a NS and an US - an acquisition has occurred when the UR now gets triggered by CS - timing: for the association to be acquired the NS needs to repeatedly appear before the US ii. Extinction (& spontaneous recovery) - diminishing of a CR that occurs when CS is presented without the US - after acquisition and following a rest period, presenting the CS alone often leads to a spontaneous recovery iii. Generalization and discrimination - generalization refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli - discrimination refers to the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimuli, preventing generalization Other applications: increasing implicit self-esteem through classical conditioning - association between info about self and smiling faces Baccus, Baldwin&Packer04
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