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Things to Remember Social Psychology.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Things to Remember Social Psychology Altruism Why do we engage in pro social behaviour?  We care about others (altruistic), we care about ourselves (egoistic) Kitty Genovese  38 witnesses, no one intervened o Not all 38 watched entire 30 minutes, highly publicized, not as easy to call 911 like today  There are certain questions we must answer in order to determine if we are going to help o Emergencies are rare, they are different and happen in an instance therefore we cannot stop and think  Do we notice the event? o More people help if they see the event actually unfold vs. just see the aftermath  Do we interpret it as an emergency? o More people intervene if stranger pushing woman than if partner o When alone, we get out of smoking room right away but if in group we do not want to appear overly excited so we look around to see what others are doing (state of pluralistic ignorance) o Interpret as emergency when we hear a direct cry for help (ambiguous situation  unambiguous situation)  Is it my responsibility? o More people help person with seizure if they are told they they are the only ones on the floor vs. told there were other people  Sense of diffused responsibility when in groups  Bystander effect  Can I help? o Competence - if you can help, you are more likely to regardless of group size  Answer to all of these questions needs to be yes in order for helping to occur o Can be hard because of audience inhibition - fear of making the wrong decision in front of others Cost-Reward Model  When we see someone in distress we take a look at the costs and rewards of helping in deciding if we will help or not  Economics students are less helpful throughout the semester because personal costs are taught as part of course  Less likely and takes longer for someone to help when someone is bleeding from mouth Three Forms of Egoistic Prosocial Behaviour 1. Gaining Rewards a. Kin Selection - more likely to help those who are genetically related to us, in life or death - choose healthy, young, in everyday - choose sick, elderly b. Reciprocity Credit - more likely to help those who have helped us in the past c. Positive Mood i. Mood Maintenance (Empathetic Joy) - tipping better on sunny days, more helpful in front of good smelling store ii. Mood Enhancement (Negative State Relief Hypothesis) - those who thought they broke the confederate’s camera were more helpful later on, teens who watch sad video give more of their prize away to others, less likely to help if we see that our mood cannot be enhanced (e.g. a drug is keeping it that way) 2. Avoiding Punishment - in some countries it results in fines or imprisonment, in others it is a violation of a social norm 3. Reducing Aversive Arousal - when we see others in distress it makes us distressed and therefore we help to reduce our distress Other Factors  Modeling - more likely to help if see someone else modeling helping behaviour  Environment - people in rural areas are more helpful than urban areas, urban overload hypothesis (so much stimuli coming at them, need to learn to tune things out so they don’t become overwhelmed, more of them, less similar, more anonymous = less helping behaviour) Altruism  Helping someone with the intent of helping them and if you are benefited in the process that was not intended  Can happen when high in empathy  Told participants either similar - high empathy to dissimilar - low empathy, to other person (confederate), confederate always did task, randomly shocked, told participant that had traumatic experience with shocks, participants had opportunity to switch spots with participant and manipulated escape (stay for 2 trials - easy, stay for 10 trials - hard) o When low empathy and easy escape helping is low o When low empathy and difficult escape helping is high o When LOW empathy and easy escape helping is HIGH ** o When high empathy and difficult escape helping is high  When participants are asked for notes for student with broken legs and either told would see them many times or few times, those with altruistic motived helped equally in both conditions while those with egoistic motives only helped when high cost (would see them a lot)  Looked at openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and emotional stability - both kin selection and reciprocal altruism were correlated with agreeableness, kin selection was negatively correlated with emotional stability and reciprocal altruism was positively correlated with it  Those who are high in moral reasoning are more likely to help because associated with higher empathy  Those who are high in religiosity are more likely to help but might only help those who they think deserve it (belief in just world)  Men help more in situations that call for bravery - more costs for women to help Who gets help?  Women are more likely to ask for help, men have more cost for asking  Children are used to asking for help and therefore do not hesitate  Physically attractive people are more likely to get help  Reciprocity  Social obligation (the giving pledge) o Depends on attributions we make for them asking for help - more likely to help if situation is out of their control (giving notes to blind person vs. giving notes to someone who skipped class)  More likely to help people who are similar to us even on superficial characteristics (liking the same sports team, foreigners given the wrong directions by locals)  More likely to help friends (but not always according to the social evaluation maintenance model of attraction) and less likely to help in exchange relationship (social norms model of attraction) Help works best if invisible, can be reciprocated, or if done in a non-demeaning way. Help does not work if from someone similar to the person and for a task that is important to that person. Intergroup Behaviour  Can be at the individual level (dyadic) or the group level (inter group) Helping Strangers  We find that Spanish and Portuguese cultures (where helping is valued, simpatia) as well as countries with low GNP are the most helpful and countries with high GNP are the least helpful  There tends to be a strong negative correlation between focus on welfare of in group of culture and willingness to offer help to a stranger  Americans see reciprocity as a matte of choice while collectivistic societies believe it is imperative Social Categorization  Do this because the world is complex, it is efficient and our cognitive capacity is limited  Natural categories: categories that have a natural defining, e.g. mammals, birds  Social categories: groups that we put people in  Once categorization is formed we tend to exaggerate differences (accentuation) - this happens at young age, told children looking at pictures of other children or of boys and girls and asked their personality - when categorization is emphasized, said more stereotypical personality traits for boys and girls  In group favouritism o We tend to prefer the in group over the out group o This can be seen even with minimal information (minimal group paradigm)  Look at abstract painting, assigned to group according to preference on painting, never met other group members, assigned money to in and out group members - tends to be fair but in group always gets a little bit more than the out group  Out group homogeneity o We tend to think that the in group is diverse and the out group is the same o “they all look the same”  Had 24 cards of faces of blacks and whites, then given 72 and asked to identify the 24 they had seen before - whites we much better at identifying the white faces they had seen before over the blacks and vice versa o We have different amounts of information about the in and out group - but out group homogeneity still happens under minimal group paradigm o We have different kinds of categories for members of in group and members of out group  We are included in in group, don’t know anyone in out group as well as we know ourselves Social Comparison  Relative deprivation - you perceive you are getting less than you deserve o Compare to other people (egoistic) or to other groups (fraternalistic) and can be source of intergroup conflict o People in air force express more complaints about raises when actually they have more opportunities for raises than the military does, because many people receive promotions, those who don’t feel deprived o Don’t have x, want x, feel entitled to x o Notice others have x, want x, feel entitled to x, x is attainable, you are not the reason you don’t have x Resolving Intergroup Conflict 1. Increased Intergroup Contact a. Equal status contact b. Superordinate goals - goals that both sides want to achieve, that both sides benefit from equally, and that cannot be obtained without the combined effort of both sides c. Common group identity - more forgiveness of Germans when think of holocaust as people attacking other people vs. Germans attacking Jews, common identity (people) reduces biases 2. GRIT Strategy (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension reduction) a. One side announces intent to end conflict and carries out plan of action regardless of if the other side responds b. Over time the credibility of the first group builds up and the second group will most likely respond c. The first group responds back right away and it goes back and forth 3. Bargaining a. Direct negotiation between both sides b. People who appear tough in negotiating price get better deals 4. Mediation a. Third party comes in to help discussion between both sides b. Leads to high satisfaction with the outcome because the both sides had a say in the matter 5. Arbitration a. Third party comes in, listens to both sides and then imposes a settlement b. Leads to less satisfaction than mediation, used best when mediation is used first and does not work 6. Integrative Solutions a. When both sides obtain better outcomes than if resources were just split equally i. Have open communication, focus on long term consequences, better if people are good at perspective taking, apologize (spontaneous apologies increase in frequency as we get older, sibling apologies are rare and more frequent after physical harm) Intergroup Relations and Culture  Collectivistic there is stronger distinction between in group and out group, more likely to engage in ethnocentrism (believing your ethnic group is preferable)  Individualistic societies see this as prejudice and their distinctions are less defined  In conflict Americans assign blame exclusively to one side  Individualistic societies see negotiation as a business activity where primary means of communication are verbal and timelines are important  Collectivistic societies see negotiation as a social activity, built on fostering trust, communication is nonverbal and deadlines are not important  Acculturation o Linear process model - learn new culture and lose old o Cultural pluralism model - learn new culture and keep old o Integration - keep old and participate in new  Leads to multiculturalism, most adaptive strategy o Separation - keep old and do not participate in new  Leads to segregation o Assimilation - do not keep old and participate in new  Leads to melting pot, negatively associated with self esteem o Marginalization - do not keep old and do not participate in new  Leads to exclusion, least adaptive strategy o People sometimes cannot choose which way they acculturate Aggression  There needs to be a victim and an aggressor, there needs to be an intent to harm such that the victim wants to avoid such harm There are two arguments: aggression is in our nurture (learned) and aggression is in our nature (genetic disposition) Instinct Theories  Aggression is an instinct  McDougall says we have 18 instincts and aggression is one of them  Freud says we have 2 instincts (love and life instinct - eros, and death instinct - thanatos) o Death instinct is not adaptive therefore we ‘bottle it up’ but it needs to be released some way so the pressure does not cause an ‘explosion’ (hydraulic theory) and this is aggression (catharsis)  Lorenz said that we need to be aggressive in order to survive because only aggressive animals get their genes into the next generation - why more likely to abuse stepchildren than genetically related children  Genetics account for up to 50% of variances in aggression Studies on aggression focused on animals. If we can modify aggression in animals we can modify aggression in humans because we have culture.  Raised cat with rat (enemies) and find that cat did not attack rat and generalized to other rats o Therefore aggression is learned - not necessarily, aggression can still be inborn and then modified  Raised rat in isolation and then brought other rat into home cage, rat became aggressive towards intruder o Therefore aggression is innate - not necessarily, in order for something to be innate we need to see it happen without modifying the environment  Male cichlids are very aggressive male fish, mate with many females and use aggression to assert territory on other male cichlids (other male fish they ignore), if take all male cichlids out, the male cichlid will start being aggressive to other male fish that they were ignoring before and when all male fish are taken out of environment (essentially heaven for them), they start becoming aggressive to female cichlids o Therefore this is evidence that aggression is innate Evolutionary Perspective  Women look for mate with resources, male look for mate that has signs of youthfulness  There is always maternal certainty (when a woman is pregnant, she knows it is her baby) but without a DNA test, there is no way of knowing who the father is for certain (paternal uncertainty) therefore there must be differences in sexual jealousy o “What makes you feel more distressed? When your partner is in a deep emotional relationship with someone else or in a passionate sexual relationship with someone else?  Men were more distressed when partner was in passionate sexual relationship - goes back to being uncertain if they are the father, don’t want to raise someone else’s child  Women are more distressed when partner in deep emotional relationship - this is precursor to sexual relationship and women want exclusivity, they don’t want their partner to divide resources between two women Brain Structures and Aggression 1. Amygdala - when stimulated, become more violent 2. Testosterone - higher levels in men, higher levels associated with higher aggression a. Men with high levels of testosterone and high levels of education are actually less aggressive - suggests that it is testosterone and something else b. Situations also increase testosterone levels (e.g. after athlete wins) 3. Serotonin - lower levels associated with higher levels of aggression, tend to overreact to aversive stimuli 4. Alcohol - leads to disinhibition a. May lead to more aggression at subconscious level (when primed with alcohol images, recognize aggressive words faster) Social Learning Theory (Bandura)  We are aggressive because we have learned to be aggressive through past experiences, current reinforcement and cognitive factors regarding it’s appropriateness (modeling in media)  Men are more aggressive than women when unprovoked but when provoked these gender differences go away  Both men and women are equally aggressive when in anonymous situation  People who have inflated self esteem are more aggressive when their view is not fulfilled by others Regional Differences in Aggression  South US is more aggressive than North US - can be seen in homicide rates  Fill out questionnaire and had to hand it in at end of narrow hallway o Confederate in the way with filing cabinet open, they slam it shut, yell asshole and run into room close to cabinet with door closed o Southern students are more likely to run after the confederate and demand an apology while Northerners are more likely to just shake it off Frustration Aggression Theory  When we are frustrated we have the motive to aggress and aggression always comes from some sort of frustration  People need to express that frustration (catharsis - blowing off steam)  However we don’t always know the source of our frustration or it might not be appropriate so sometimes we release our frustration on an easier target (displacement)  Looked at economic security and black lynchings o As the cost of cotton decreased (less spending money for farmers, more frustrated) the number of black lynchings increased (displaced frustration to victims not protected by government at the time)  Can also increase negative attitudes towards minorities o Those who were told that their Friday night off was cancelled showed more negative views about blacks and Japanese  Unjustified frustration leads to more aggression than justified frustration Frustration Aggression Theory Revisited  Situational cues o Participants given either neutral feedback (1 shock) or negative feedback (7 shocks) from confederate and then taken into room to give their shocks to the confederate, on table their was either a weapon that belonged to confederate, badminton racket or nothing o Overall, angry condition shocked confederate more but even more so when there was a weapon on the table (sometimes the trigger pulls the finger)  Noxious stimuli  Perception of grievance or frustration Cognitive Neoassociation Theory  Hot temperatures - increases aggression  Other unpleasant stimuli - environmental stressors, pollution, crowding, feeling rejected, pain  Situational cues Excitation Transfer Theory  Any arousal can be labeled as aggression if situational cues call for aggression Contemporary Model of Aggression 1. Eliciting condition (makes people aggressive) 2. Negative affect 3. Immediate response (fight or flight, depends on past experiences) 4. Higher cognitive decision (the attribution you make for the situation - did she mean to bump into me?) 5. Are we aggressive or not (depends on other predisposing variables - social, personality) Aggression and the Media  As strong as a link as smoking and cancer  Media portrays cynical view of the world - therefore more likely to interpret an ambiguous situation as one that calls for aggression  Can change social norms over time so what was at one point not appropriate is now appropriate on TV  People match their behaviour to what they see in the media - higher homicide rates of people of same ethnicity who lost boxing match and more it was publicized, the higher the rate is  Physiological arousal can energize whatever that person is already feeling and they way misattribute this cause of arousal  Overtime, may becomes desensitized to aggression because of the media and can reduce their inhibitions about engaging in aggressive behaviour Violence Cross Culturally  New Guinea is most violent place in world (over 600 homicides per 100,000)  Norway is one of the least violent (.9 per 100,000)  Differences in types of violence o US - individuals, gun violence o Africa, South America, Middle East - groups o Europe - football hooligans  Nonviolent places: Zapotec, Balinese, Tibetan Buddhists, Mennonites and Amish, Inuit  Collectivistic show higher levels of aggression due to greater distinction between in group and out group but peer directed aggression is lower  Differences seen as early as age 4 o American children have more evil characters and aggression in their narrative o Child rearing is encouraged in US while in Indonesia a child is rewarded if they can calm themselves down  Domestic violence is higher in collectivistic societies with lower gender equality and lower in countries that’s dominant culture is feminine o In collectivistic societies, women staying in abusive relationships are seen as good wives where as in individualistic societies they are seen as foolish Ecology and Aggressive Behaviour  Truks o Highly aggressive o Males are dominant and women are expected to be submissive o Very protective over women o Fighting for honour is honourable thing to do o Fish in open ocean  Dangerous, need to be courageous in order to survive  Fish are not always plentiful, they experience much frustration  Tahitians o Non violent society o Don’t see fighting for honour as honourable thing to do o Less defined gender roles, less protective over women o Fish in lagoons  Fish are plentiful, don’t need to be courageous  Life is easier - less frustration  Simbu o Large gender segregation o Women are submissive, men are dominant o Little faith in government  Shortage of land therefore take matters into their own hands - fight for resources  High levels of frustration  Semai o Very friendly o Aggression is frowned upon o Live in rainforest - plenty of land and resources - don’t have frustration Subcultures and Aggression  Homicides are normally intra-racial (only 1 ethnicity) o Highest rates are for black males  Southerners see having a gun as making their house more safe while northerners see not having a gun in their house as making it more safe o Goes back to roots of southerners being herders and needing to develop a reputation as someone who would fight to defend his resources o Respond more highly than northerners to letters of honour killing Cultures and Reactions to Frustration  Had Anglo Americans and Hispanic Americans come to lab and they were minority  Hispanics became more moody, performed worse, were less engaged when as minority and Anglos became more aggressive  Happened because Hispanics are high on simpatia therefore when in minority and frustrated, become less simpatia o Culture shapes our behaviour when we become frustrated Gender and Violence  We learn masculinity and femininity - it is not innate  Learn this through socialization and media  Tough guise o Confined framework for men to conform to in order to be considered manly o Even smaller for men of colour because of the lack of diversity in the media  8 year old girls are high on indirect aggression and lower on physical and verbal  15 year old girls are higher on verbal, same on indirect aggression and lower on physical  8 year old boys are same on all 3  15 year old boys are higher on verbal, physical stays the same and indirect goes down  Overall, boys are more physically aggressive than girls In countries where there has been war recently, there are higher levels of homicide. This is because aggression is an easy emotion to access and propaganda is justifying the actions of the group to the out group. Controlling Aggression  Cognitive interventions o When we apologize, the likelihood of aggressive behaviour goes down  Non aggressive models  Training in social skills o Peaceful Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Program - teaches children how to identify situations that could lead to violence and teach them how to p
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