Class Notes (836,147)
Canada (509,656)
Psychology (3,977)
PSYC 2330 (214)
Lecture

Week 7 - Lecture 22nd and 24th- extended.docx

14 Pages
63 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture Week 7 - October 22 ndand 24 Effectiveness of reinforcement, extinction, behavioral modification Effectiveness of Reinforcemnt  Dirve -  Incentive value of S* - incentive value of the reinforcer – meat burger and veggie burger  Delay of reinforcement  Stimulus control  Schedule of reinforcement  is a program or rule that determines which occurance of a response is followed by the reinforcer  reinforcers schedules that involves similar relationship between response and reinforcers usually produce similar patterns of behavior  Schedule effects are highly relevant to the motviation of behaior – whether someone works hard or lazy depends less on personality than on schedule of reinforcement that’s in effect Delay of Reinforcment  20 min delay  Food will be found in one side  Behavior you looking for – the turn of the mouse o Only one behavior is obviously reinforced by the food o Because the rat is being reinforced for turnnig right o Confine them in area and see if confine them in there for 20 minutes (in delay box) keep them from consuming food – how much delay so that animal will learn this o Idea is that cannot smell or see food o If you keep animal there for 20 minutes – they still learn the task  Animal is either cheating - all the stimuli that is predicting the stimuli that is around the food  Or delay doesn’t make difference  Below is how the animal “cheats” – how they use other ques as reinforcers  Food (S* -reinforcer = stimulus Goal) - Rg = reactions in goal box o Start box they produce UR  Both stimuli and delay box come to elicit start to produce rg / conditioned box –small r is for conditioned response o Rg = fraction (compoenents of large response) anticipatory (anticipation of goal) goal response (salivation of response)  What do these responses do? 1. Energizes behavior 2. Felt by individual  hunger in stomach is stimulus to you – serve as stimuli that animal can use to find where the food is o Put me in goal box – salivation o When I look right – salivation picks up – so I am motivated to move right o I am salivating in delay box even though nothings happen 3. Sg guide vehavior Propiceptive condition reinforces  Propiceptive stimulation – when turn – most sensation in your body - sensation is being paired with food – and then shifting becomes an enforcer  What you are reinforcing is the memory of the response (physiological)  Task is for animal always enter black box – and will get food  And learn that black is always right now  You can switch them around because of the colour  You have delayed box – confine them and then allow them to get food  10 second delay – don’t learn it o Small delay can’t use any other ques responding will go down because they don’t have propiceptive condition  When proprioceptive, as well as extroceptive, doncitioned reinforcers are eliminated, even a brief delay in the presentation of the reinforcer prevents learning Stimulus Control  You can control the amount of influnece enironment has  Behavior that has been reinforced in the presence of one stimulus is controlled by the presnce / ansence of that stimulus  However, responding often generalizes to other stimuli on the bassi of their simiarity to the training stimulus  When you are inhancing environment – generalization Generalization gradient  Discriminant – behavior will only occur in the presence of a stimuli  Pigeon – green -pecks get food  Eventually pigeon will be able to distinguish the color – extreme discrimination o Pigeon experinece in textbook – while triange, red like  an organism is said to exhibit stimulus discrimination if it responds differently to two or more stimuli – one cannot predict which one will gain control  Generalization – you get flat o Any color gets response o If you always reinforce  Believed wanted behaviors should generalize and unwanted should be under strick stimulus control o Unwanted behavior – you can decide when stimulus is presented so you want to control the stimulus  Stimulu generalization – an organism is said to show stimulus generalization if it responds in a similar fashion to two or more stimuli Schedules of reinforcement Reinforce a response every time it occurs  Skinner played a lot in this  Continuous reinforcement schedule (CR)  Intermittent, or partial (time) Question Which of the following schedules results in a conditioned or primary rienforcer after every target behavour a. Fi b. vI (b) answer c. fR d. VR e. CRG Continuous reinforcement if required # of responses is 1 – result of reinforcer every time  Although most responses end with common reinforcer, hot water tap = water, there are cases where doesn’t occur Ratio schedules  vending machine  reinforcement depends only on the # of response the organism has performed  Fixed ratio – 5 coins – you reinforce every one response o CRF is also fixed relation o Organisms often response at steady and moderate rate o There is a steady and high rate of responding once behavior gets underway o Cumulative record – response repeated over time – the slop of the record (upward stair case) represents subjects rate of response o the zero rate of responding that occurs just after reinforcement that occurs just after reinforcement is called the post reinforcement pause  the high and steady rate of responding that completes each ratio requirement is called ratio run  if the ratio requirement suddenly increased a great deal (from 5 coins to 10), animal likely pause periodically before the completion of the ratio requirement – this is called ratio strain  should be called pre-ratio pause – because you are anticipating effort that will have to be put in to  Variable ratio – 5 coins, on average – still counting coins but dispensing on average not fixed measure found in everyday life when unpredictable amount of effort is required to obtain a reinforce o Responding is rather steady o Fixed = pause – run variable = steader Interval schedule  Fixed Interval (FI) o Amount of time that has to pass before response is reinforced is constant from one trail to the next -Every 2 minutes – mail man comes every 24 hours it has to dispense every 6 seconds o o As time for the availability of the next reinforcer comes, response rate increase  This pattern is called the fixed interval scallop o Having watch or some sense of time helps this pattern – pigeons = dim light closer to reinforcer so they know o Note: the time interval in fixed interval does not guarantee that reinforcer will be provided at same point in time in order to receive it, organism has to make instrumental response  Variable interval o Are found in situations where unpredictable amount o time is required to prepare or set up reinforcer o An average of time lapse v1 -2 = an average of 2 minutes pass o As in fixed interval, subject has to perform instrumental response to obtain reinforcer  Behavioral output that you get o Fixed – scalloping type of responding  as they get closer to minute, they pick up rate of responding  Slow – fast kind of responding - Pause and run  post-reinforcement pause Variable  constant throughout ** if want to respond all the time – variable schedule either ratio or interval Interval schedules and limited hold  In real life if you don’t make response after certain amount of time reinforcer may not e there like in lab setting  Limited hold – kind of restriction of how long a reinforcer remains available Comparison of ration and interval schedules  Both Fixed ration and fixed interval schedules have post –reinforcement pause after each delivery of reinforcer  Both produce high rates of responding just before delivery of reinforcer  However, does not mean they motivate in same way Reinforcement of IRT’s  Interval between one response to next is called inter-response time Other Schedules st  Progressive ratio and break – point -the number required for each reinforce progressively – 1 reinforcement 1 response for 2nd– 10 responses for 3 reinforcer need to make 40 reinforcement – until hit breaking point o Finding reinforcer that have efficacy higher than others – strawberries higher than chocolate o Effort subject is willing to put i
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2330

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit