Class Notes (836,147)
Canada (509,656)
Psychology (3,977)
PSYC 2330 (214)

Week 7 - Lecture 22nd and 24th- extended.docx

14 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Lecture Week 7 - October 22 ndand 24 Effectiveness of reinforcement, extinction, behavioral modification Effectiveness of Reinforcemnt  Dirve -  Incentive value of S* - incentive value of the reinforcer – meat burger and veggie burger  Delay of reinforcement  Stimulus control  Schedule of reinforcement  is a program or rule that determines which occurance of a response is followed by the reinforcer  reinforcers schedules that involves similar relationship between response and reinforcers usually produce similar patterns of behavior  Schedule effects are highly relevant to the motviation of behaior – whether someone works hard or lazy depends less on personality than on schedule of reinforcement that’s in effect Delay of Reinforcment  20 min delay  Food will be found in one side  Behavior you looking for – the turn of the mouse o Only one behavior is obviously reinforced by the food o Because the rat is being reinforced for turnnig right o Confine them in area and see if confine them in there for 20 minutes (in delay box) keep them from consuming food – how much delay so that animal will learn this o Idea is that cannot smell or see food o If you keep animal there for 20 minutes – they still learn the task  Animal is either cheating - all the stimuli that is predicting the stimuli that is around the food  Or delay doesn’t make difference  Below is how the animal “cheats” – how they use other ques as reinforcers  Food (S* -reinforcer = stimulus Goal) - Rg = reactions in goal box o Start box they produce UR  Both stimuli and delay box come to elicit start to produce rg / conditioned box –small r is for conditioned response o Rg = fraction (compoenents of large response) anticipatory (anticipation of goal) goal response (salivation of response)  What do these responses do? 1. Energizes behavior 2. Felt by individual  hunger in stomach is stimulus to you – serve as stimuli that animal can use to find where the food is o Put me in goal box – salivation o When I look right – salivation picks up – so I am motivated to move right o I am salivating in delay box even though nothings happen 3. Sg guide vehavior Propiceptive condition reinforces  Propiceptive stimulation – when turn – most sensation in your body - sensation is being paired with food – and then shifting becomes an enforcer  What you are reinforcing is the memory of the response (physiological)  Task is for animal always enter black box – and will get food  And learn that black is always right now  You can switch them around because of the colour  You have delayed box – confine them and then allow them to get food  10 second delay – don’t learn it o Small delay can’t use any other ques responding will go down because they don’t have propiceptive condition  When proprioceptive, as well as extroceptive, doncitioned reinforcers are eliminated, even a brief delay in the presentation of the reinforcer prevents learning Stimulus Control  You can control the amount of influnece enironment has  Behavior that has been reinforced in the presence of one stimulus is controlled by the presnce / ansence of that stimulus  However, responding often generalizes to other stimuli on the bassi of their simiarity to the training stimulus  When you are inhancing environment – generalization Generalization gradient  Discriminant – behavior will only occur in the presence of a stimuli  Pigeon – green -pecks get food  Eventually pigeon will be able to distinguish the color – extreme discrimination o Pigeon experinece in textbook – while triange, red like  an organism is said to exhibit stimulus discrimination if it responds differently to two or more stimuli – one cannot predict which one will gain control  Generalization – you get flat o Any color gets response o If you always reinforce  Believed wanted behaviors should generalize and unwanted should be under strick stimulus control o Unwanted behavior – you can decide when stimulus is presented so you want to control the stimulus  Stimulu generalization – an organism is said to show stimulus generalization if it responds in a similar fashion to two or more stimuli Schedules of reinforcement Reinforce a response every time it occurs  Skinner played a lot in this  Continuous reinforcement schedule (CR)  Intermittent, or partial (time) Question Which of the following schedules results in a conditioned or primary rienforcer after every target behavour a. Fi b. vI (b) answer c. fR d. VR e. CRG Continuous reinforcement if required # of responses is 1 – result of reinforcer every time  Although most responses end with common reinforcer, hot water tap = water, there are cases where doesn’t occur Ratio schedules  vending machine  reinforcement depends only on the # of response the organism has performed  Fixed ratio – 5 coins – you reinforce every one response o CRF is also fixed relation o Organisms often response at steady and moderate rate o There is a steady and high rate of responding once behavior gets underway o Cumulative record – response repeated over time – the slop of the record (upward stair case) represents subjects rate of response o the zero rate of responding that occurs just after reinforcement that occurs just after reinforcement is called the post reinforcement pause  the high and steady rate of responding that completes each ratio requirement is called ratio run  if the ratio requirement suddenly increased a great deal (from 5 coins to 10), animal likely pause periodically before the completion of the ratio requirement – this is called ratio strain  should be called pre-ratio pause – because you are anticipating effort that will have to be put in to  Variable ratio – 5 coins, on average – still counting coins but dispensing on average not fixed measure found in everyday life when unpredictable amount of effort is required to obtain a reinforce o Responding is rather steady o Fixed = pause – run variable = steader Interval schedule  Fixed Interval (FI) o Amount of time that has to pass before response is reinforced is constant from one trail to the next -Every 2 minutes – mail man comes every 24 hours it has to dispense every 6 seconds o o As time for the availability of the next reinforcer comes, response rate increase  This pattern is called the fixed interval scallop o Having watch or some sense of time helps this pattern – pigeons = dim light closer to reinforcer so they know o Note: the time interval in fixed interval does not guarantee that reinforcer will be provided at same point in time in order to receive it, organism has to make instrumental response  Variable interval o Are found in situations where unpredictable amount o time is required to prepare or set up reinforcer o An average of time lapse v1 -2 = an average of 2 minutes pass o As in fixed interval, subject has to perform instrumental response to obtain reinforcer  Behavioral output that you get o Fixed – scalloping type of responding  as they get closer to minute, they pick up rate of responding  Slow – fast kind of responding - Pause and run  post-reinforcement pause Variable  constant throughout ** if want to respond all the time – variable schedule either ratio or interval Interval schedules and limited hold  In real life if you don’t make response after certain amount of time reinforcer may not e there like in lab setting  Limited hold – kind of restriction of how long a reinforcer remains available Comparison of ration and interval schedules  Both Fixed ration and fixed interval schedules have post –reinforcement pause after each delivery of reinforcer  Both produce high rates of responding just before delivery of reinforcer  However, does not mean they motivate in same way Reinforcement of IRT’s  Interval between one response to next is called inter-response time Other Schedules st  Progressive ratio and break – point -the number required for each reinforce progressively – 1 reinforcement 1 response for 2nd– 10 responses for 3 reinforcer need to make 40 reinforcement – until hit breaking point o Finding reinforcer that have efficacy higher than others – strawberries higher than chocolate o Effort subject is willing to put i
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2330

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.