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Lecture 9

Thursday, Oct 4/2012 - Lecture 9

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Thursday, October 4 PSYC 2330 Lecture 9 Preparedness • There are some parameters surrounding what can be conditioned, how strongly it can be conditioned, and how long that conditioning is likely to last • Animals/humans seem prepared to associate some CS-US combinations more readily than others • Such preparedness is defined by the amount of inputs (# of trials) that are necessary to develop a reliable output (responses) • Examples of prepared associations are taste aversion, salivary conditioning ◦ Dogs are generally prepared to develop a salivatory response • An example of unprepared associations is the pairing of context with a drug of abuse ◦ These are difficult to condition, but conditionable after enough trials • An example of counter-prepared associations is “instinctive drift” ◦ You may try to teach something to the animal that it is not biologically able to learn, so it will continually revert back to natural behaviour ◦ Trained pigs to take coins from donors and put them in a piggy bank ◦ Pigs will naturally hide their food by burying it ◦ Initially these animals were taking the tokens and putting them in the piggy bank ◦ Once they really learned that the coins were associated with food, they began to treat the coins as food and bury them! ◦ An animal may show the learned response initially, but an instinctive disposition can kick in that is not be consistent with the training Determinants of CR • What kind of conditioned response will we get? How can we predict? • It is very difficult • For responses mediated by the somatic nervous system, the CR can be very complex ◦ Mediated by your muscles, by the movement of your entire body ◦ If you present a stimulus often the response will be flexible and open to modification by the situation • It is often possible to predict whether the response will be to move away or towards • Example -> fear will predict instrumental avoidance behaviour ◦ appetitive state will predict instrumental appetitive behaviour • Autonomic responses are moderated by the autonomic nervous system, cannot be consciously controlled and are much easier to study for that reason ◦ In some cases the CR is the same as the UCR ◦ In other cases, the CR is opposite to the UCR ChimpsAddicted to Heroine • At the time there were a lot of soldiers who were addicted to heroin • After getting a primate addicted heroin by administering the drug each day in the same way behaviours that were not conditioned begin to appear because the emotional state is now conditioned ◦ Examples include the primate pulling the experimenter towards the drug administration room ◦ Primate going to the drug administration room when left loose ◦ Primate will turn to look at arm being given the needle and gesture with the arm to the experimenter For responses mediated by theAutonimic Nervous Systems, the CR can be • Identical to the UR (Eye blink) • Opposite to the UR ◦ In this case we say that the CR is a compensatory response ◦ Introduced with the analysis of how functions of homeostasis maintain balance within the body ◦ You may not end up conditioning the direct effect of the stimulus ◦ You may condition the body to the homeostatic effect of the stimulus on the body which creates a compensatory reaction ◦ Many of our systems in the body attempt to maintain an equilibrium ◦ Unconditioned response of morphine ▪ One of the unconditioned responses of morphine is removal of pain ▪ Compensatory response of the body is oposite to what morphine does – period of time where you will by hyperalgesic (ie. More sensitive to pain) ▪ This compensatory response generates the desire to take more morphine • When you place the animal in the drug room without the drug being administered, will the response now be the same or opposite? ◦ Office space clip with the conditioning of altoids to the reboot noise ◦ first conditioned response noticed was to reach for the altoid ◦ second conditioned response noticed was the bad taste in the mouth ▪ but altoids don't make the breath bad, they make breath nice ▪ in this cultural representation of classical conditioning, the conditioned response was opposite to the unconditioned response Sometimes Opponent Process Theory • The CR will mimic the UR if the UR is monophasic (no b-process) ◦ only has one dimension ◦ Only changes in one direction ◦ Effect of the stimulus is theAportion of the curve (Some behaviours produceAcurve only, such as eye blinking) • The CR will be opposite to the UR if the UR is biphasic (b-process) ◦ Compensatory response of the body to an effect is the B portion of the curve • Heart rate UR to shock is biphasic – CR = decrease in HR • Eye UR to puff of air is monophasic – CR = UR • Locomotor UR to shock is bi
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