Class Notes (808,481)
Canada (493,244)
Psychology (3,816)
PSYC 2450 (153)

Chapter 9.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 9: Cognitive development: information-processing perspective and connectionism  Mind similar to computer: limited capacity, hardware (nervous system), software (strategies)  Information flow and the multisite model  Multistore model: information processing model that depicts information as flowing through three processing units (or stores); the sensory store the short term store and the long term store  Sensory store (sensory register): first information-processing store, in which stimuli are noticed and briefly available for further processing o Log in unit o Holds raw sensory input as a king of after image (echo) of what you have sensed for only a brief period of time  Short-term store (STS): second information-processing store, in which stimuli are retained for several seconds and operated upon (working or primary memory) o Sufficient for you to retain a phone number for as long as it takes to dial it o Functions: (1) store info temporarily so that (2) you can do something with it  Long-term store (LTS): third information processing store, in which information that has been examined and interpreted is permanently stored for future use  Executive control processes: the processes involved in regulating attention and determining what to do with the information just gathered or retrieved from long-term memory  Metacognition: knowledge about cognition and about the regulation of cognitive activities  The development of the multistore model  Processing that influence all types of thinking:  Capacity if short-term storage (hardware)  Speed of processing (hardware)  Children’s use of strategies (software)  Children’s understanding of what it means to think (metacognition or executive functioning)  Knowledge base: one’s existing information about a topic or content area  Attention: process of selecting what stimuli children will bring into or work on within the info processing system  Development differences in “hardware”: information-processing capacity o Capacity - Used to refer to total amount of space available to store information - How long info can be retained in a storage unit - How quickly info can be processed 1  Development of short-term store o Memory span: measure of the amount of information that can be held in the short-term store (# of rapidly presented and unrelated items that can be recalled in exact order) - Also influenced by prior knowledge of the material they are asked to remember o Span of apprehension: the number of items that people can keep in mind at any one time or the amount of information that people can attend to at a single time without operating mentally to store this information o Although a number of possibilities have been suggested the factor that seems to play the most crucial role is ease of item identification- how quickly the child identifies items to be remembered  Changes in processing speed o Fail concedes that our past experiences can influence speed of processing within a particular domain, but maturationally based factors are primarily responsible for broad age related differences in speed of info processing o Increase myelinization of neurons in the associative areas of the brain and the elimination of unnecessary neural synapses that could interfere with efficient information processing are two possible candidates (not complete until adolescence or young adulthood)  Developmental differences in “software”: strategies and knowledge of “thinking”  The development of strategies o Strategies: subset of executive functions defined as goal-directed and deliberately implemented mental operations used to facilitate task performance  Production and utilization deficiencies o Thought preschool children= astrategic (not true) o Production deficiency: failure to spontaneously generate and use known strategies that could improve learning and memory (e.g. young children may not rehearse list of words or sentences for a memory test but they will rehearse when given an instruction to do so= improves memory performance) o Utilization deficiency: failure to benefit from effective strategies that one has spontaneously produced; thought to occur in the early phases of strategy acquisition when executing the strategy requires much mental effort o Children show improvements in recall sorting and clustering as a result of training and maintaining their levels of strategy later on o Children might use strategy for the novelty of trying something different o Younger children may know less about how to monitor their cognitive activities and may not even be aware that they are failing to benefit from using a new strategy  Multiple strategy and variable strategy use o In learning to add, young children frequently use a sum strategy that involves counting both numbers out loud o Min strategy; begin with the large number and count up from there 2 o Fact retrieval; knowing the answer and retrieving it directly from the long-term memory without having to count at all o Frequency of strategies varies with age (older = more sophisticated strategy) o Adaptive strategy choice model: Siegler’s model to describe how strategies change over time the view that multiple strategies exist within a child’s cognitive repertoire at any one time, with these strategies competing with one another for use  What children know about thinking? o Implicit cognition: thought that occurs without awareness that one is thinking o Explicit cognition: thinking and thought processes if which we are consciously aware o Children awareness between consciousness and unconsciousness develop during childhood  Implicit cognition, or thought without awareness o Implicit learning: early developing ability - Shows little improvement across childhood o Substantial age differences are found on test of explicit learning and memorization and on children’s understanding of what it means to think (less found on implicit test or memory)  Fuzzy-trace theory: an alternative viewpoint  This theory proposed by Brainerd and Reyna postulates that people encode experiences on a continuum from literal, verbatim traces to fuzzy, gistlike traces  Gist: fuzzy representation of information that preserves the central content but few precise details  Fuzzy traces- easier to access and less effort to use  Verbatim traces- more interference and forgetting  Before age 6-7, children seem to be biased toward encoding and remembering verbatim traces of the info they encounter (older- more inclined to encode and remember fuzzy traces)  Useful for describing, developmental changes in the way children encode info and use them to solve problem  The development of attention  Changes in attention span o Attention span: capacity for sustaining attention to a particular stimulus or activity (problem; attention is easily captured by distractions, task irrelevant thoughts) o Reticular formation: area of the brain that activates the organism and is thought to be important in regulating attention (not fully mylenated till puberty)  Development of planful attentional strategies o 4-5 not very planful but 6 ½ are highly systematic o Older children; formulate systematic plan for searching environment for a lost toy, limiting their search 3  Selective attention: ignoring information that is clearly irrelevant o Younger children demonstrate little ability to display selective attention; capacity to focus on task-relevant aspects of experience while ignoring irrelevant or distracting information o Older children concentrate more  Cognitive inhibition: dismissing information that is clearly irrelevant o Inhibition: the ability to prevent ourselves from executing some cognitive or behavioral response  Meta attention: what do children know about attention? o 4 year old: cant overcome distractions but know that it can be a problem o Knowledge about attentional processes increases with age and even 5 year old realize they should look first at task relevant stimuli and then label objects for the to remember o 7-9 years: to do well they must attend selectively to task relevant stimuli and ignore irrelevant info  Memory: retaining and retrieving information  Event memory: long term memory for events
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2450

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.