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Lecture 17

Outline Lecture 17 Conflict 1.odt

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PSYC 3100
Pat Barclay

Outline Lecture 17 Conflict 1 1. Introduction to Conflict & basic concepts - Beware the naturalistic fallacy - Acquisition of resources: aggression as risky Hawk strategy - Violence as deterrent 2. Sexual selection & reproductive variance: more variance in male reproduction – Evolution of risk-taking: nothing to lose (e.g. some males, especially under polygyny) – men more acceptable to have polygynous marriages. – More adult men unreproductive. Men have both more winners (people with many kids) and more losers (no kids). – Variance is greater in males, more males failing to reproduce – Choosing Risky Options: – risky behaviour: of options with equal expected payoff, the riskier behaviour is the one with greater variance in outcome – e.g. Would you rather.. – a) receive 10 fitness units? – b) flip a coin to receive either 5 or 15 units -if individuals are likely to survive/reproduce without taking risks: (e.g.) if need a minimum of 9 units to survive/reproduce if risk succeeds, it may increase fitness if risk unsuccessful, risk-takers lose what it would have gotten without taking the risk -if they are unlikely to survive/reproduce without taking risks: (e.g.) if need a minimum of 14 units to survive/reproduce) if the risk succeeds, risk-taker gets some fitness if the risk is unsuccessful, nothing is lost because the risk-taker was unlikely to survive/reproduce anyway 3. Violence by those with less to lose – Sex differences in violent conflict (males more physically violent) – males are more violent, former english colonies affect this – researchers have long sought such a society where women are more violent than men – there are none. – Close analysis reveals a male bias in violence alleged examples of sex-role reversed societies – there are cultural differences in violence, but males are more violent than women within each society – the age distribution appears to be universal also – Universality of these sex differences What are they fighting for? -most homicides occur over “altercations of relatively trivial origin” -these are social competitions between strangers or acquaintances -status challenge, public insult or disrespect -rivalry over women – Effects of unemployment and marriage – men who are unemployed are much more likely to be violent. – men who have currently succeeded in attracting a partner (married) commit fewer homicides than men who have not succeeded in reproducing. – Killers and victims are less likely to be married than other members of the population – could this be because violent men are less likely to get married? – Divorced men are just as aggressive (violent) as single men – widowed men are pretty damn aggressive – situation of being married is a predictor of not being aggressive – Proximate mechanism: testosterone – unmarried men have highest testosterone, married with no children have less, and married with children have the lowest levels of testosterone. – More time spent with spouse was associated with lower T levels – Social & economic inequality – Inequality: less to Lose, More to Gain. – 4. War – War in non-humans – chi
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