SOAN 2111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Robert Boyle, Black Death, Francis Bacon
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HOBBES COMPARED TO ROUSSEAU
LOCKE AND ASTELL
Film: Deluge by Data
- Digital overload and need to go on a data diet.
- How far can it go before it transforms us.
- Some people need organizers because they have too much.
- We are stressed out from knowing everything
- 2,000x more than in 2004
- Disconect: check who follows you.
- The revolution of data is just beginning
- Quantified Self – self knowledge through numbers
- What perspective would you apply; here? – (think about this question)
- Data scientists of themselves.
- Clothing tracker may become more popular with time.
- We are at information war.
- First Cyborg, we may be chipping ourselves soon since we also chip our pets.
- Camp Grounded – phantom phone syndrome
-first half: 2 pages
-second half: 2 pages
I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AROUND THE TIME OF HOBBES:
RENAISSANCE TO BAROQUE
17th century philosophers
- rationalism: sees knowledge existing independently of physical reality
- empiricism: sees knowledge as based on observable, physical reality
During and after this century empiricists Francis Bacon and John Locke were rejecting
the old magical ideals and arguing that physical reality works according to mechanical
principles. Knowing what the principles are may lead to making a better society.
A few notes on the middle ages:
- monasteries, the copying of old manuscripts by hand (studied by the medieval
- The church’s authority was supreme
- More time: intellectual interests
- Medieval philosophy: the joining of faith with reason (becoming more self-
reflective, and this was new, not simply just using the bible for faith, the joining
of both is new)
- Laughter means not as much fear towards God, believing that faith is the only
reason to live.
- Philosophy as the handmaid of theology: reason was subordinate to faith
- Tension between reason and faith is now heightened
- By the 12th century books by Plato are available and the philosophical battle is
- Religious authority: faith alone vs. religious philosophers, interested in teaching
of Greek philosophy
- 1348: - the bubonic plague: seen as a divine wrath, warning of a sinful humanity.
Or a fear of death intensified the desire to enjoy life; springboard for economic
growth (Swollen Glands, Italy, transmitted through rodents, drinks, sneezing)
- it tells us what happened during the middle ages: based around fear of death.
Gender analysis: women were often blamed for the bad things that have happened
and the diseases.
Historical Background Around the Time of Hobbes
a) Magnetic compass: greatly impelled intellectual innovation.
b) Gunpowder: contributed to the demise of the old feudal order
c) The mechanical clock: became the paradigm of modern machines (relationship we
have with nature and times)
d) The printing press: allowed the dissemination of new revolutionary ideas
-> leading toward a contact in regards to exploration and the rise of science.
Painting: cultural contact painting: the ideas of the ambassadors with the regulation of
exchanging ideas between a priest and an explorer. Preoccupation with death, the plague,
time, discoveries etc. Tactile is very important in this painting as well. You can sense
what is happening (empiricism) Wealth, desirability and tangibility of what money can
Hans Holbein: ambassadors: exchange of ideas and exploration
- inventions were powerfully modernizing and secularizing in their effects
- overthrow of medieval feudal structures
- silent reading helped free individual from collective control of thinking
- new era’s emerging science; shaping the modern view
- now individual ability and deliberate political action and thought carried the most
- individual man is becoming an adventurer genius and rebel
- After the 15th-16th century the centre of the universe is no longer European
- A sense of relativism for everyone not simply just European.
- Protestant reformation: 1517 – Martin Luther – condemning abuses of church and
sparked a popular revolt.
- Focused on the relationship on the individual believer to God (postestanism)
- Return music to its natural state leading to a rebellious spiritual state
- Growing need for intellectual independence
- Challenging the Government of Rome
- architecture: 1550-1700
- music: 1600-1750
Baroque styles expresses the spirit of the counterreformation
Around 1600-1625 the Catholic Church had survived the rise of the postestatism – now in
the mist of expansion
The Roman Catholic Revival – historians call the counter reformation was given added
purpose and vigour by a remarkable group of artistic visionaries
- this new style of baroque reflected the optimism of the church
- fascination at this time with light and dark movement time and space
- explosion of knowledge transferred to artists – sought new ways of seeing and
Carrvagio: realism and naturalism – a new and radical form of art
- depicted ordinary people as religious themes (women, housewives as virgin Mary)
- attitude shared by certain saints of the Counterreformation – faith as inward
experience open to all people
- appealed to protestants and catholics
- Galileo, earth as the centre of the universe, Aristotle, Philosophy.
- Women presented as death instead of dying
Baroque style of architecture – roots in counterreformation Rome
Monarch’s of the 17th century Europe (kings power was challenged by social economic
changes). They sought to present themselves as their heirs of the Roman Emperors. Kings
are represented by God. The kings are challenged to have their powers seen as supreme.
Dignity, wealth and power where their power was challenged by secular inventions due to
II HOBBES COMPARED TO ROUSSEAU
*Print the table in the skeletal notes*
Hobbes says we live in a dog eat dog world.
The will to content: we are living in a constant state of fear, thus we fear a social contract.
Images of the Monarchs and the Kings (paintings) -> better to give them the power
instead of us going to war and living in fear.
All of our desires are connected for us to keep avoiding death (hopes and appetites)
Society comes together out of fear.