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Delinquency in Youth.docx

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SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

Delinquency in Youth Family Structure ⁃ used to explain delinquency ⁃ 3 factors ⁃ birth order: oldest children tend to be most delinquent ⁃ family size: small the family, less likely the delinquency ⁃ divorce factors: used to be a factor prior to 1975, Parenting ⁃ parental responsiveness: extent that parents are supportive of their child's needs, parental warmth and supportiveness, foster self-regulation and assertion ans support for a child's needs based on what is appropriate for age level, more support=less delinquency ⁃ parental demandingness: extent to which parents demand appropriate behaviour for child's age, expect more with age, if a parent expects too much is can lead to delinquency Types of Family ⁃ authoritative: supporting and demanding, monitor and impact clear standards, appropriate conduct and behaviour, not restricvtive or intrusive ⁃ discipline: supportive rather than punitive, understand what is/is not appropriate behaviour ⁃ authoritarian: rejecting and demanding, obedience is expected, well structured environment, clearly stated rules, more likely to produce aggressive children, mimic use of aggression outside the home ⁃ discipline: physical or corporal punishment ⁃ indulgent: supportive and not demanding of appropriate behaviour, do not require mature behaviour, avoid confrontation, allow self-regulation ⁃ indifferent: rejecting and not demanding, neglectful, not supportive, little time at home, don't participate in activities, produce the most delinquent children Models of Juvenile Justice ⁃ crime control model ⁃ responsibility of the state to maintain order in society ⁃ crime is not tolerated, protection of society is the most important, those who commit crime are severely punished, eliminate crime, conservative approach ⁃ justice model ⁃ uphold people's individual rights ⁃ to interfere with an individuals freedom is limited except by law, taken away if a crime is committed ⁃ specific procedures followed for criminal justice ⁃ focus is on deterrence (prevent crime before it happens) ⁃ importance of due process ⁃ welfare model ⁃ the needs of the young people are the most important, whatever action is taken must be in the best interest of the child ⁃ medical, treatment and intervention, recognition that delinquency is part of other social events, look at individual circumstances, how did the child become delinquent? ⁃ community change model ⁃ society is responsible for the welfare of its citizens, community must work together ⁃ root causes of crime are related to other sociological factors (example: poverty), addressing ways in which a community can help prevent crime/work with young people in the future ⁃ prevent and rehabilitate a young person ⁃ restorative justice initiatives ⁃ restorative justice: the crime impacts the victim and the offender but also the community, emphasis is to focus not on punishing, but emphasizing on healing broken/harmed relationships, a person who has committed a crime has to repair the harm that they have caused (example: responsible for fixing vandalism), encouraging victims, offenders, family, and community to find solutions to restore the harm that has been caused, often done by conferences Applying Models of Justive to Canadian Experience ⁃ JDA (Juvenile Delinquents Act), 1908 ⁃ based on welfare model, decisions made by judges are best interest of child ⁃ children work with social workers and judge, not lawyers ⁃ status offences: if the same act was undertook by a adult it would not be considered a crime, young person with younger status, it is seen as a crime (skipping school, drinking, having sex (female), smoking) ⁃ still effective in the USA ⁃ delinquency: violation of criminal code, being guilty of sexual immorality or other vices (more enforced for females than males) ⁃ young people in court without legal council, judge, social worker, probation officer make decisions ⁃ sentencing: ⁃ fines, placed in foster homes, probation, reformatory schools (industrial schools, re- socialize young people) ⁃ Children' Aid Society more involved than lawyers ⁃ criticisms: ⁃ lack of due process ⁃ indeterminate sentences (as long as necessary for a child to be “fixed”/”rehabilitated”) ⁃ too “soft” on some offenders ⁃ inconsistent application of the law across Canada, each province determined age of being a juvenile (example: Manitoba 18, Ontario 16) ⁃ status offences seen as unconstitutional (still in USA, no longer in Canada) ⁃ YOA (Young Offenders Act), 1984 ⁃ based on crime control model, started as a justice model ⁃ getting “tough on crime”, harsher punishments, control crime as much as possible ⁃ abolishment of status offences ⁃ what is considered a crime as an adult is the same as a child (and vice versa) ⁃ focus on federal criminal offences ⁃ due process introduced for juveniles (right to a lawyer) ⁃ sentences: ⁃ originally 3 years ⁃ 1992: murder sentence changes from 3 years to 5 years ⁃ 1995: murder sentence changes to 10 years ⁃ 1995: 16 and 17 year olds automatically transferred to adult court (serious crimes- murder, manslaughter, attempted murder, aggravated sexual assault) ⁃ criticisms: ⁃ youth crime declined, incarceration decreased, late 1990s more juveni
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