SOC 1500 Lecture Notes - Youth Criminal Justice Act, Young Offenders Act, Restorative Justice

2 views6 pages
Delinquency in Youth
Family Structure
used to explain delinquency
3 factors
birth order: oldest children tend to be most delinquent
family size: small the family, less likely the delinquency
divorce factors: used to be a factor prior to 1975,
Parenting
parental responsiveness: extent that parents are supportive of their child's needs,
parental warmth and supportiveness, foster self-regulation and assertion ans
support for a child's needs based on what is appropriate for age level, more
support=less delinquency
parental demandingness: extent to which parents demand appropriate behaviour for
child's age, expect more with age, if a parent expects too much is can lead to
delinquency
Types of Family
authoritative: supporting and demanding, monitor and impact clear standards,
appropriate conduct and behaviour, not restricvtive or intrusive
discipline: supportive rather than punitive, understand what is/is not appropriate
behaviour
authoritarian: rejecting and demanding, obedience is expected, well structured
environment, clearly stated rules, more likely to produce aggressive children,
mimic use of aggression outside the home
discipline: physical or corporal punishment
indulgent: supportive and not demanding of appropriate behaviour, do not require
mature behaviour, avoid confrontation, allow self-regulation
indifferent: rejecting and not demanding, neglectful, not supportive, little time at home,
don't participate in activities, produce the most delinquent children
Models of Juvenile Justice
crime control model
responsibility of the state to maintain order in society
crime is not tolerated, protection of society is the most important, those who commit
crime are severely punished, eliminate crime, conservative approach
justice model
uphold people's individual rights
to interfere with an individuals freedom is limited except by law, taken away if a
crime is committed
specific procedures followed for criminal justice
focus is on deterrence (prevent crime before it happens)
importance of due process
welfare model
the needs of the young people are the most important, whatever action is taken must
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
be in the best interest of the child
medical, treatment and intervention, recognition that delinquency is part of other
social events, look at individual circumstances, how did the child become
delinquent?
community change model
society is responsible for the welfare of its citizens, community must work together
root causes of crime are related to other sociological factors (example: poverty),
addressing ways in which a community can help prevent crime/work with young
people in the future
prevent and rehabilitate a young person
restorative justice initiatives
restorative justice: the crime impacts the victim and the offender but also the
community, emphasis is to focus not on punishing, but emphasizing on healing
broken/harmed relationships, a person who has committed a crime has to repair
the harm that they have caused (example: responsible for fixing vandalism),
encouraging victims, offenders, family, and community to find solutions to
restore the harm that has been caused, often done by conferences
Applying Models of Justive to Canadian Experience
JDA (Juvenile Delinquents Act), 1908
based on welfare model, decisions made by judges are best interest of child
children work with social workers and judge, not lawyers
status offences: if the same act was undertook by a adult it would not be considered a
crime, young person with younger status, it is seen as a crime (skipping
school, drinking, having sex (female), smoking)
still effective in the USA
delinquency: violation of criminal code, being guilty of sexual immorality or other
vices (more enforced for females than males)
young people in court without legal council, judge, social worker, probation officer
make decisions
sentencing:
fines, placed in foster homes, probation, reformatory schools (industrial schools, re-
socialize young people)
Children' Aid Society more involved than lawyers
criticisms:
lack of due process
indeterminate sentences (as long as necessary for a child to be “fixed”/”rehabilitated”)
too “soft” on some offenders
inconsistent application of the law across Canada, each province determined age of
being a juvenile (example: Manitoba 18, Ontario 16)
status offences seen as unconstitutional (still in USA, no longer in Canada)
YOA (Young Offenders Act), 1984
based on crime control model, started as a justice model
getting “tough on crime”, harsher punishments, control crime as much as possible
abolishment of status offences
what is considered a crime as an adult is the same as a child (and vice versa)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Birth order: oldest children tend to be most delinquent. Family size: small the family, less likely the delinquency. Divorce factors: used to be a factor prior to 1975, Parental responsiveness: extent that parents are supportive of their child"s needs, parental warmth and supportiveness, foster self-regulation and assertion ans support for a child"s needs based on what is appropriate for age level, more support=less delinquency. Parental demandingness: extent to which parents demand appropriate behaviour for child"s age, expect more with age, if a parent expects too much is can lead to delinquency. Authoritative: supporting and demanding, monitor and impact clear standards, appropriate conduct and behaviour, not restricvtive or intrusive. Discipline: supportive rather than punitive, understand what is/is not appropriate behaviour. Authoritarian: rejecting and demanding, obedience is expected, well structured environment, clearly stated rules, more likely to produce aggressive children, mimic use of aggression outside the home.

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes