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PSY 120 Lecture Notes - Trait Theory, Self Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Course Code
PSY 120
Donna Darbellay

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Psychology 110
March 4, 2010
i. Situations and social learning’s
ii. Parental influences
iii. Peer Influence
Conformity to dress, habits, language, and rules of peers can be highly
Identification with peer group is key to survival of the next generation
[peer acceptance very important]
Peers shape expressions of a personality traits, with emphasis on some
and downplaying others
Personality may also influences the types of pears we are drawn to in
the first place
Cultural influences
Ø Culture: a program of shared rules that governs the behaviour of members of
a community or society and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by
more members of that community.
May be as influential as any biological process
Ø Cultures, values, and traits
Individualistic cultures: cultures in which the self is regarded as
autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized about duty
and relations with others
Collective cultures: cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded
in relationships, and harmony with ones group is prized about
individual goals and wishes
We often make personal attributions for behaviour when they really
result from cultural norms
Ø Cleanliness, helpfulness, tardiness
Cultural differences in beliefs of personality stability across situations
Culture and aggression
Ø Studies of male aggression have indicated that economics and
culture play a role in expression of violence
Not just testosterone
Types of violence and reasons for violence differ
Culture of honour: culture in which even apparently small
disputes and trivial insults threaten the reputation of an
individual, family, or group, requiring a violent response
to restore its status
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