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KIN 456
Eric Roy

KIN456 – Lecture 1: Historical Perspectives Chapter 1 What is the physical basis for our behaviour? - Brain Hypothesis- our behaviour is largely controlled through our brain - Neuron Hypothesis- Basic building block of nervous system is our neurons What are the principles of organization? - Localization- certain parts of our brain control specific behavior - Anti-localization- Idea that the brain operates as a whole, look to the whole brain as opossed to parts - Functional Systems (neuro-networks)- different parts of brain work together in the functional systems. E.g. in reaching there is a part of the brain that controls movement and a part that controls vision etc. Similar to localization approach but with benefits i.e. parts work together Brain Hypothesis - Evolution to the brain o Liver>Heart>Brain - Hippocrates (400 BC) o Brain was Organ of the intellect  In these ways I am of opinion that the brain exercises the greatest power in the man. This is the interpreter to us of those things which emanate from the air, when it [the brain] happens to be in a sound state. But the air supplies sense to it. And the eyes, the ears, the tongue and the feet, administer such things as the brain cogitates. For inasmuch as it is supplied with air, does it impart sense to the body. It is the brain which is the messenger to the understanding. For when the man draws the breath (pneuma) into himself, it passes first to the brain, and thus the air is distributed to the rest of the body, leaving in the brain its acme, and whatever has sense and understanding...Therefore, I say, that it is the brain which interprets the understanding. o Heart was the organ of the senses o Recognized the link between the heart and the Brain - Galen (177 BC) o Theory of humors– Elements of body thought to control a persons temperament o Galen also states that the important mental faculties are situated in ventricles of the brain - Da Vinci (1504) o Wax infusion of ventricles – Discovered ventricles do play a role but Figure 1-4 Humors – Blood, was unsure of how they play a role phlegm, choler and black bile o Introduction of experimentation - Descartes (1649) o Eventual move from ventricles to the brain: Link between body and the mind o Descartes focused on Pineal Gland (part of the brain that linked the mind and the senses to the body) o Origins of Duality- Ability to study two things separately  This dualism presents a problem for Descartes insofar as an explanation is needed as to how our minds and bodies interact in their separate realms. For example, when my hand touches something hot, this sensation is registered in my mind. Also, if my mind decides to 1 KIN456 – Lecture 1: Historical Perspectives Chapter 1 remove my hand, this decision must be transferred to my body, which results in motor activity. Thus, Descartes needs an explanation of both sensory and motor communication between our spirit minds and physical bodies. Unfortunately, the problem of the interaction between mind and body is not solved just by their close 'union'. For they are still essentially different kinds of things. He offers such an explanation in Part One of The Passions of the Soul (1649): the pineal gland in the brain is the gateway between the two realms (I, 340ff). He notes that there are two standard accounts of how the body and soul are connected: through the heart, and through the whole brain. He rejects these and suggests that the point of interaction is the pineal gland. This is because it is a single gland in the center of the brain, which unites our doubled sensory perceptions (e.g. two eyes). With sensory perception, information is transferred to the pineal gland through animal spirits, blood, and nerves. With motor commands, the gland is moved by the soul, and thrusts the animal spirits towards the pores of the brain, and onto the nerves. Pineal Gland is the central part of this circumscribed part of the brain o We know know the pineal gland calcifies very early in the brain and is used as a reference point in a CT scan to tell what level the scan is cutting at. Therefore this gland cannot play the role it is said to play in Descartes theory. - Changing conception of the mind o Mind an indivisible whole – That is it can be mapped as a whole onto parts of the brain o Find the single “seat” of the mind o Anti-localization views – Everything is lumped into one part o New conception>mind composed of faculties (parts) o Now find substrates of faculties - Gall (1808) o Developed phrenology Figure 2 - Link between input through the pineal gland and to the  Phrenology – Epitome of Localization output  Adopted notion of faculty (strength or skill) psychology  Each faculty (strength or skill) associated with particular group of cells  Cortex is a collection of these cells or organs  Size reflected power of organ/faculty in each person  Skull conformed to contour of brain, so size of organ reflected in bumps on skull- Led to the idea of reading the bumps on your skull  The phrenologist – Would read your skull and determine via the bumps what particular faculty was strong in you  i.e. if your occipital bone was very large you were very amorous and if it was flat you were not  Phrenology: Causality  Causality is the faculty which houses the ability to abstract, think logically, and to trace cause and effect. Causality is looking for the "How?" and the "Why?" and searches for reasonable answers. It gives the ability to understand principles and to 2 KIN456 – Lecture 1: Historical Perspectives Chapter 1 investigate theories and philosophies. A strongly developed Causality is the hallmark of thinkers, scientists and philosophers.  Localisation:  Causality is located in the protuberances located halfway on the forehead. The more these protuberances are obvious, the more Causality is developed.  Problems with phrenology 1. Faculties bore little relationship to real behaviour 2. Outer skull does not mirror surface of the brain 3. Phrenology invited quackery, that is these people that would go around and offer to read your skull (like someone in the circus reads your palm) led to a lot of derision by the scientific department regarding the relationship between skull shape and behaviour - Anti-localization opposition to phrenology o Flourens’s (1824) ablation work with birds (damaged different areas of the birds brain)- argues that if the brain is able to recover despite where the brain is damaged caused him to argue that the brain works holistically o Brain is physiologically uniform like any other organ o Marked an advance on phrenology due to experimentation - Evidence for localization o Speech deficits and left-hemisphere damage  Bouillard (1825), Dax (1836), Broca (1861) o Comprehension and left-hemisphere damage  Wernicke (1874)  The case of Phineas Gage (1848)  Accident : Tamping Rod struck Gage just beneath the left eye and tore through his skull and departed from the left side of his head. Phineas did not die but was left
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