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HIST 220 - Nov 4.docx

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University of British Columbia
HIST 220

HIST 220 – Nov 4, 2013 Enlightenment - History of ideas - Intellectual History - Social and Cultural History of Ideas - Marxist Social History - New Social History: Transformation of the Public Sphere “Nature is governed by certain laws” Marxist Social History - approach is economic and social changes produce new ideas - social changes in thought and politics - French case: Marxist historians consider the enlightenment to be the rising of the Bourgeousie Transformation of the Public Sphere - new soci-ability outside of the direct view of the State  new civil society was responsible for the spread of the ideas of the Enlightenment Issac Newton (1642 – 1727) - Laws of the Natural World and Motion were useful  became popular and influential - sparked laws of society - these laws were not obvious, laws were discoverable - application of human - increased sense of confidence in the possibility of humans to understand the universe - growing sense of optimism that people could in fact learn to understand the workings of nature John Locke (1632 – 1704) - Laws of the Human World (Social Science) - if you can change and improve society, you can improve man - in 1690, Locke published The Two Treaties in Government - government was a contract between ruler and rule - agreement in which the ruler agrees to take responsibility for life, liberty and property - if the government fails to do this  new contract or a new ruler is needed - optimism  reason when applied to society and government can improve things Philosophers - “Encyclopedia defines
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