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Psyc 302 genetics.docx

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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

INTRO TO GENETICS WHAT INFLUENCES DEVELOPMENT? genetics (nature) experience (nuture) genes are contained in strands of DNA genes: make proteins which cause changes (build brain cells, cause puberty, etc) chromosomes: contain DNA WHAT MAKES HUMANS UNIQUE? mitosis: dipoiad cells meiosis: haploid cells; specifically sex cells crossing over: chromosomes get so close together that there is swappng of genetic material ALLELES biggest aspect of variation we inherit our alleles from our parents recessive genes will only be expressed if you get those recessive alleles from both parents only 1/3 of genes have these dominant and recessive traits 2 of the same allele: homozygous 1 of each allele: heterozygous phenotype: expresses dominant allele green eyes are dominant to blue eyes GENOTYPS VS PHENOTYPE genotype: genetic info; your particular alleles phenotype: what you show/express; influenced by environment and genes the same expression (phenotype) can come from different genotypes the same genotype could result in different phenotype (ex. skin cancer; some of us have a sensitivity to skin cancer; if you live in a place where there is lots of sun and you have this sensitivity you are more likely to have the phenotype of skin cancer compared to someone with the sensitivity who lives in dark places) NORM OF REACTION EXAMPLE OF GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION PKU is an amino acid and some people do not have the abilityto metabolize it if you can be diagnosed as someone with this deficiency you will be completely fine if you dont you can get severe retardation EXAMPLE MAOA: when these genes are active we make proteins which inhibit aggression kids with low MAOAactivity with severe maltreatment in the home show severe agression; this aggression isnt shown when they are in a home with no maltreatment MORE GENE-ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES the parents: genes influence the kids and parents influence the environment EPIGENETICS environment is thought to cause genotype changes epigenetics: things that are influencing genetics up and above genetics themselves dimmer switch analogy: environment comes in and sets the dimmer switch low when it should be high and this happens before cell division and continues on epigenetics are mostly within your life time (they set the dimmer switch at a certain place which is staying that way throughout their life) studies at UBC: studied dr's at Johns Hopkins (all rich) and found that those with low SES in the first few years of life were more likely to have heart disease later in life Example: when you feed mom rats high fat diets their grandrats are fatter which seems to be coded for genetically; you set your dimmer switches which are then passed on to later generations FAMILY STUDIES how we measure heritability BEHAVIOURALGENETICS concerned with behaviour variation results from the combination of genes and environment Heritability ****THIS WILL BE TESTED 1st part: variability: a trait has certain amount of variability; and then you have variabilityin the population (different level of variability in different populations) heritability coefficient: 0-1 (0=not at all heritable
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