HLTA02 Lecture 8
Culture
“The learned, shared and transmitted values, beliefs,
norms and lifetime practices of a particular group that
guides thinking, decisions and actions in patterned
ways.”
Culture: Iceberg Metaphor
- Surface Culture: = Examples: Art, Food, Language,
Literature, Dress, Rituals, Practices, Traditions, etc.
- Deep Culture = Examples: Expectations, Gender
Roles, Leadership Styles, Perceptions, Attitudes
towards Age, Norms, Notions of Modesty, Unwritten
Rules, Views on Raising Children, Notions of
Cleanliness, Approaches to Problem Solving,
Importance of Time, Assumptions, etc
Social societal models of Health
- Locate health, disease, and biological processes
within the broader social, historic, political and
economic context (macro level structures)
o Structures relationship to agency (the
individual)
- Health IS political; Bodies as both biological and
social
- Shared responsibility for health: gov’t,
community, industry, etc.
- Aligned with a human rights approach to health
- Emphasize structural determinants of health
Concerned with in/equity and social change.
WHY? Because there is a commitment to social
transformation and change so we have to root
out social inequity
WHO 1948 definition
- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and
social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity”
- Highest standard of health-physical, mental, and
social- is a fundamental human right
- SDG 3- Good health and well being. At work
surrounding this goal is social structural changes
Sociological Imagination
- Thinking BEYOND our own subjective perceptions to
question common-sense
- Sociology is a discipline that encourages us to use
sociological imagination
o Commits use to the exercise of exploring the
world from different perspectives
o It allows us to be more critical. Question things
that have been dismissed or taken for granted
- See things from different perspectives
Theories in Sociology of Health/Medicine
Consensus Model of Society: focus on positive aspects
of society that contribute to its stability
- Assume we all have a role to play and ultimately
goal is to ensure society runs smoothly
- The following two are consensus model of
society
- Structural functionalism
- Symbolic interactionism
Conflict Model of Society: society is conflicted and
ever-changing
- conflicting interests are rooted in structural
inequalities, and resource inequalities
- struggle and tension between different groups
- these 3 are conflict model of society
- Political economy
- Other critical theories: feminist theories, queer
theories, critical disability studies, post-colonial theory,
- social constructionism
Political Economy
- Health/Care is Political: includes access to and
control over basic non/ material resources that
sustain and promote life at a high level of
satisfaction
- Macro-sociological analysis; Karl Marx, Friedrich
Engels, many others
- Assumes conflict model of society
- Inequity and conflict from competing economic
+ political interests
- We can’t understand society without
understanding social class
- Assumes capitalist modes of production and
consumption are bad for our health
Key Concepts
- Ideology: A system of inter-related ideas and
concepts that reflect and promote the political,
economic, and cultural values and interests of a
particular social group.
- Hegemony: political + economic control; the
ability of the ruling class to maintain dominance
by projecting its own ideological vision of the
world as natural and common sense.
- Hegemonic Ideology = “universally prevailing”
ideology that benefits some and not others.
- Imperialism: formal and informal political and
economic dominance of one country over
others.
- Colonialism: a policy or set of policies and
practices where a political power from one
territory exerts control in a different territory. It
involves unequal power/social relations.
- Capitalism: an economic, political and social
system in which property, business and industry
are privately owned, directed towards making
the greatest possible profits individuals and
organizations
- Neoliberalism: a political-economic philosophy,
and corresponding policies and practices that
emphasize free-markets and individualism.
Example: Diarrheal Disease
- Globally, approximately 1.7 billion cases of
childhood diarrhoea disease every year
- Certain parts of the world are dispropotionately
burdened
- Second leading C.O.D in children under-5 years
old
- A leading cause of malnutrition in children
under 5yrs
- Significant proportion can be prevented by
providing safe drinking-water and adequate
sanitation and hygiene
Critiques of Political Economy
1. Ignores determinants and interventions at
micro-level (e.g., lifestyle/behavioural,
biological, genetic).
2. Disproportionate focus on class/markets; fail to
consider other important forms of social
stratification and inequality gender, ethnicity,
ability, sexual orientation, etc.
3. Disregards progress associated with capitalism.
Disregards the benefits of capitalism
Unnatural Causes: Bad Sugars
- Focuses on Tohono Oodham nations
reservation in Arizona
- Surrounded by wild life and reservations
- The Tohono and Pima people have the highest
rates of type II diabetes in the world
The Mystery?
- Why do the Tohono Oodham and
Achimel Oodham (Pima) tribes in Arizona
have some of the Highest rates in Type 2
Diabetes?
Themes
- Poverty, oppression, disempowerment and
futurelessness are health threats
- Diabetes rates are disproportionately high
among native American tribes who have been
deprived of their traditional livelihoods and way
of life
- Community self-determination can be important
health promoter
Unnatural causes Film
- Theoretical framework that adheres to the film
is political economy
- The discipline focused on is sociology
- Distinct narrative
Fenceline Film = Health geography- discipline
Split Horn Film = Sociocultural anthropology- discipline
Structural Functionalism
- School of thought in sociology (and anthropology)
that assumes society should be understood as a
system of inter- dependent parts. The different parts
of social life depend on each other and fulfill functions
contributing to social order and its reproduction.
Structural Functionalism
- Consensus View of Society: assumes shared
values, norms, attitudes, and beliefs
maintaining social order.
- Social Order maintained by people acting in
defined roles, performing certain functions.
- Illness as Deviance: an unnatural state of the
human body, causing both physical and social
dysfunction.
- Medicine: part of a controlling apparatus within
society; functions to maintain the social order
by returning people to health.
Structural Functionalism
EXAMPLE: Talcott Parsons - influential in 1950s
1960s.
- Healthcare: exists to restore and maintain social
order.
- Health is important if society is to function
smoothly; people must be able to perform their
roles.
- Doctor: socially beneficent, parental role.
- Doctor-Patient Relationship: harmonious; no
power imbalance.
- Key Concepts: Sick-role, doctor-patient
relationship.
Structural Functionalism
- Sick Role: rights and obligations surround illness and
shape beh of doctor and patient:
Exempt from social obligations.
Not to blame for condition.
Must want to try to get well - return to normal.
Must put themselves in hands of med
professionals to get well.
Critiques of Structural Functionalism
1. Ignores potential for conflict inherent in medical
encounters:
- Patients = compliant, passive, grateful
- Doctors = beneficent, competent, altruistic
- Does NOT consider power, negotiation, conflicting
interests
2. Moralistic: potential for people to become
malingerers.
3. Paternalistic: doctor as father; patient as
dis/obedient child.
4. Decontextualized: fails to critically consider
context.
Symbolic Interactionism
- Micro-level: concerned with insiders
perceptions: considers (interpretation of)
symbols and details of everyday life.
- Focus: Peoples subjective experience; how we
interact.
- Human action must be interpreted, cant be
assumed or simply observed.
- Qualitative research methods.
- Examples: Erving Goffman on stigma; Michael
Bury on biographical disruption.
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

The learned, shared and transmitted values, beliefs, norms and lifetime practices of a particular group that guides thinking, decisions and actions in patterned ways. Surface culture: = examples: art, food, language, Roles, leadership styles, perceptions, attitudes towards age, norms, notions of modesty, unwritten. Locate health, disease, and biological processes within the broader social, historic, political and economic context (macro level structures) Health is political; bodies as both biological and social. Shared responsibility for health: gov"t, community, industry, etc. Aligned with a human rights approach to health. Because there is a commitment to social transformation and change so we have to root out social inequity. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity . Highest standard of health-physical, mental, and social- is a fundamental human right. Sdg 3- good health and well being. At work surrounding this goal is social structural changes.

Get access

Grade+20% off
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers

Related Documents