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9 Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences 21 (1-2):9-14 Physiological Society Of Nigeria, 2006 Available online/abstracted at;; SERUM IRON AND TOTAL IRON BINDING CAPACITY LEVELS AMONG THE ABO BLOOD GROUPS IN ENUGU, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA. 1 * W. C. NWAFIA , J. O. ANEKE., C. U. OKONJI 1 Physiology Department College of Medicine University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus Enugu, Nigeria School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu. Nigeria *E-mail: waltercares 007 @ Summary: Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and Percentage Transferrin Saturation (%TS) levels were studied in 2260 apparently healthy Nigerian volunteers in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. The ABO blood groups of the subjects were also determined. They were aged between 10 and 25 years, males were 1808 and females 452 (M/F ratio- 8:2).In all the results obtained, the females had lower values. Serum iron (micromol/L) was highest in the group A (26.3 7.2 - males, 18.7 5.2 -females) and lowest in group 0 (22.0 4.7 - males, 15.6 4.5 - females). Groups B and AB had values of 23.0 5.2 (males) 16.3 3.2 (females) and 23.3 3.8 (males), 16.5 6.8 (females) respectively. The TIBC value (micromol/L) was highest in group A (60.2 9.0 - males, 42.7 6.0 - females) and lowest in group 0 (51.8 0 14.2 - males, 36.8 12.2 - females), while the values for groups B and AB were 54.7 7.5 (males), 38.8 2.5 (females) and 54.4 4.8 (males), 38.6 3.8 (females) respectively. The percent TS was highest in the group A (43.7 2.0 - males, 31.0 1.0 - females) and lowest in those of B (42.0 1.4 - males, 29 0.4 - females) while groups AB and 0 had values of 42.8 1.0 (males), 30.4 3.0 (females) and 42.5 1.9 (males), 30.2 4.8 (females) respectively. There were significant differences between the intra group comparisons of the results of groups A and O only in the serum iron and TIBC parameters. No significant differences were observed in the percentage TS among the different blood groups. The values obtained for the percentage distribution of the different blood groups agrees with already established values for the population. Since the values obtained for the parameters studied all fall within the normal range, this work provides useful data on the environment of South Eastern Nigeria. Key Words: Serum Iron. Total Iron Binding Capacity. ABO Blood Groups. Transferrin Saturation. Introduction Serum contains a small amount of iron 14- Iron is a very important requirement 32 mol/L (males) and 10-28 mol/L for the formation of RBC. It forms a major (females) (Lee, 1993; Jandl, 1996) which is portion of Hb molecule, the oxygen carrying bound to the globulin fraction of serum pigment in the blood. It is required for Hb proteins. The physical role of this protein- synthesis. Iron liberated from old RBC is bound iron is the transportation of iron in the normally retained and re-utilized. Body Iron body. Low values of serum iron are found in comes from both plant and animal sources. haemorrhagic and hypochromic types of The form of iron present in the body includes anaemia, while high values are found in ferrous (Fe 2), ferric (Fe 3+), Hb, pernicious anaemia etc (Jandl, 1996). Haemosiderin, Myoglobin, Ferritin and Presence of iron in the body is estimated by the Transferrin (Siderophilin). Iron is also determination of Serum Iron and Total Iron an important constituent of the enzyme Binding Capacity (TIBC) of blood, which is catalase, peroxidase and cytochrome C. the serum iron level when the iron transport These are involved in cellular respiration. protein transferrin is completely saturated. The levels of TIBC in serum has been determinedW. C. Nwafia et al 10 as 45 72 mol/L (Jenkins and by venepuncture using disposable pyrogen - Williams,1969 ;Lee,1993), the value free needles and syringes (Becton Dickson. Dublin, Ireland). The left antecubital vein was increasing in iron deficiency and in the last trimester of pregnancy, while low values occur used. The collected blood was put into a well in acute and chronic infections (Jenkins and labeled acid-washed plastic test tube, allowed Williams, 1969 ;Lee, 1993). to clot, centrifuged at a speed of 10,000 The knowledge of blood grouping has rotations per minute for 10 mins. The serum helped tremendously in alleviating the obtained was decanted into another acid- complications hitherto associated with washed test tube. The serum and the RBCs transfusion reactions. Interest in blood group were stored at 4C until ready for analysis. The research dates back to 1656, when Christopher samples were all collected between 11am and Wren injected fluids into the veins of dogs 11.05am to avoid variations (Hamilton et (Ukaejiofor, 1996). The ABO blood group was al,1950; Delaney and Garratty, 1969; Worlledge et al, 1974; Statland and Winkel, discovered in 1900 - 1901 by Karl Landsteiner (Ukaejiofor, 1996). 1997) Blood group distribution in Nigerians (1gbos, Hausas and Yorubas) have been Analytical Methods documented and compared with those of the The ABO blood groups were British ((Ukaejiofor, 1996). There have determined using the standard method been many documented evidence associating described by Baker and Silverton (Baker and human blood groups with diseases. They Silveron, 1998). Serum iron estimation was include the protective effect of blood group O done using the method described by Persijin et in rheumatic fever and its increased al, (1971).This same method was also used for predisposition to duodenal ulcers (Glyn and the determination of Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC) from which TIBC and Holborow,1969;Ukaejiofor, 1996) , increased occurrence in group A of pernicious ana
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