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Digestive Disorders 2.docx

7 Pages

Health Science
Course Code
HLSC 2461U
Otto Sanchez

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Digestive Disorders 2 Appendicitis  Inflammation of the appendix  Small organ at the beginning of the large intestine, comes out of the cecum  it has all the layers of the gastrointestinal tract (mucosa, sub, muscle, serosa)  not useful as a colon although it is part of it  thin muscularis  normal appendix is 1cm in diameter so its smaller than the rest of the GI tract  whenever the lumen gets obstructed, this allows bacteria that are normally in the cecum and in the lumen of the appendix to get stuck there and start growing * causes appendicitis  happens when lymphocytes proliferate (due to immune response) after viral infection, worms inside the colon (tropical places) & gets stuck in appendix  starts as dull pain then concentrated in lower right quadrant of the abdomen  main complication of appendicitis is peritonitis (treat it fast!) Diseases of Obstruction  Small intestine absorbs nutrients  Large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes  intestinal villi are formed by enterocytes (don’t go into detail) Malabsorption Syndromes Lactase: enzyme that breaks down lactose (disaccharide), enterocytes have lactase, happens in premature children or viral diarrhea (can’t drink milk, etc) Bile Salt: acids secreted by the liver, form in biliary tract, bile goes into duodenum, important to emulsify fats, form myocils, absorbed by villi, people with this don’t absorb lipids (steateorrhea) Pancreatic Insufficiency: produces enzymes, lipases and amylases (lipids & carbs) 3 major mechanisms of diarrhea  decrease in the viscosity of feces, increase in volume Osmotic: when something is not absorbed (carbohydrate for example), so it stays in the lumen, attracts water by osmosis, water isn’t absorbed so it’s in lumen..liquify feces (example is lactase deficiency) Secretory: they’ll secrete fluid, example is cholera Motility: when peristalsis increases, all nutrients don’t get absorbed because it’s passed too quickly Common Complications -- Dehydration -- Electrolyte imbalance -- Metabolic acidosis -- Weight loss Malabsorption: Gluten Intolerance  can cause chronic diarrhea  gluten is present in many wheat containing foods  enterocytes of people don’t like gluten  immune reaction and that will cause injury of the villus as you can see  no villi = osmotic (or secretory) diarrhea  many things will not get absorbed because of the lack of enterocytes Malabsorption: Bile Deficiency Bile deficiency caused by gall bladder stones Cholelithiasis; presence of stones in the gallbladder (cholesterol stones or calcium stones), frequently in people with altered metabolism of lipids (hypercholersterolemia) Cholecystitis: inflammation of the gallbladder because the stones irritate it  If a stone escapes from the gallbladder it can block the common bile duct and cause obstructive jaundice (common but big problem), common cause of obstructive jaundice Pancreatitis  many latent enzymes that only become active by gastric acid of the duodenum  enzymes get activated inside the cells which destroys the cells  acinar cell injury (cause the things in the blue box)  causes chemical peritonitis, can cause all the things in the purple box at the bottom left  most common cause is biliary/common bile duct obstruction!! (gallstones escaping the gallbladder)  second most common is alcoholism Hepatitis  most commonly caused by inflammation of the liver  the most common cause of inflammation is a virus (there are several)  these viruses prefer the liver (microbiology)  Most common viral hepatitis is A & B (c is a little bit more uncommon)  rest are rare  A : oral (fecal), exposed to food or water con
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