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Lecture 8

ANT101H5 Lecture 8: lec 8[modern human].docx


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Lecture
8

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Ant101 2014
MODERN HUMAN ORIGINS
Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
CRO-MAGNON - Western Europe, 35,000y.a.
First find but not the oldest!
High broad forehead
Chin
Narrow nose, large broad noses
Small face
Globular vault
Slight brow ridges
Less robust post-cranial
*early homo are lack of chin
Earliest find: Omo, Ethiopia 195 kya
H.Heidelbergensis
prominent brow ridge, broad nose
Robust jaw
Thick cranial bones
Pronounced neck ms
Receding forehead
*Earliest evidence of homo sapiens is 195kya, but first find is the CRO-MAGNON
*The prominent ancestor of human and neadertals is Heidelbergensis
Origin of modern h. sapiens Hypotheses
1. Single Origin /Complete Replacement / Out of Africa /African Eve hypothesis
(Stringer & Andrews, 1988)
Origin of modern humans in Africa, with later replacement of all of other homo species
(including Neandertals)
(Haviland et al., 2009)
Moved out of Africa and replaced all of the homos
Based on:
Morphological studies
Genetic studies

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Mitochondrial DNA: genetic evidence suggested that they were descendants of
Heiderlbergensis; greatest Mt DNA diversity was found in Africa; maternally
inherited(only female gets this); found in the cytoplasm so it doesn’t undergo
translations/transcription unless being altered by mutation; can track back in
time; 200kya ago
Y chromosomes: recent study: males have Y, found polymorphism on males;
evidence for African Adam; 170kya - 190kya
Recent genetic profiling
Nuclear DNA
2. Multi-regional hypothesis (proposed by Wolpoff)
Several populations in Africa, Asian & Europe evolving together from 100,000 – 40,000
ya
(Haviland et al., 2009)
Suggested that all evolved spontaneously and regionally
Look for transitional fossils
Based on
Tool assemblages
Fossil evidence
3. Partial Replacement hypothesis (Brauer)
Also recently called Limited Admixture Model
Anatomically modern humans 1st evolved in Africa, with later disappearance of
other homo species due to hybridization(co-mingling) & replacement
Due to morphological continuity and inability of genetics to entirely disprove
interbreeding
some researchers favor limited admixture
acknowledges likelihood of some fertile interbreeding between archaic and
moderns
*combination of the previous two hypothesis
Dispersals from African Homeland
Fossil Record:
Africa: 195,000 (200kya)
Middle East(Israel): 120-80,000
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1 st
major dispersal out of Africa –
70,000 ya
Probably followed a southern route all the way to the far east and Australia
Had to travel on waters :they must have some kind of tools and transportation
materials
OR via the BERGINIA
2 nd
major dispersal
50,000 – 40,000 ya
H.sapiens north to Eurasia then west to Europe proper
East to Siberia
Americas – followed shortly after colonization of SIBERIA (20kya)
Eventually replaced neandertals
Australia
Lake Mungo
50,000 - 40,000 ya skeleton
Malakunanja
60,000 ya
Likely route
sunda region in NW
cross huge gaps of h2o
The Americas
Humans entered Americas thru BERINGIA
Overland to present day Alaska
May have come by boats along the pacific coast
Followed the herbivores via BERINGIA while the sea-level dropped
Spread of Upper Paleolithic Peoples
Siberia 42,000
Americas?
Who were the earliest North Americans?
Paleoindian
Earliest inhabitant of North America
Skilled big game hunter
Clovis points
14kya
Aboriginal Americans today
Most diverse language
5 distinct genetic groupings: direct descendants of modern Aboriginals
mtDNA: 14,000 – 11,000 ya
SINODONT
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