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Lecture 6

PSY100Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor, Major Depressive Episode, Panic Attack


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Lecture
6

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1. Explain three positive factors that support having diagnostic categories or
giving patients a diagnosis. [3 marks]
1) it facilitates communication among practitioners and researchers (standardization)
2) it is the key to further knowledge in terms of treatment and prevention
3) it allows for psychoeducation leading to more personal knowledge for sufferers of
mental disorders as well as reducing feelings of isolation and uncontrollability
2. What is a panic attack? When is it adaptive and when is it maladaptive?
[4 marks]
- A panic attack is a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which at least 4
panic symptoms (heart racing, sweating, shaking, choking, nausea, dizziness, etc…)
develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes. Panic reactions are adaptive
when there is some present danger in the environment that you must confront,
however they are maladaptive when they occur in absence of some threatening
stimuli, i.e., they occur out of the blue, or are unexpected or uncued.
3. Give examples of some common phobias and provide an explanation for
why they are so much more prevalent than other phobias. [3 marks]
- common phobias include fear of snakes, spiders, dogs, heights, water, blood
These phobias are likely more common due to Biological Preparedness or a genetic
predisposition to fear certain stimuli over others. Most of the common phobias
involve things that were traditionally very deadly to our ancestors and thus it was
evolutionarily adaptive to have a strong fear response for these ancient dangers.
4. What is the difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders? [2
marks]
- Bipolar I is one or more Manic or Mixed episodes, usually accompanied by
Depressive episodes, whereas, Bipolar II is Depressive episodes accompanied by
hypomania
5. What is Somatization Disorder? [2 marks]
- a history of many physical complaints that result in treatment being sought that
cannot be explained by a medical condition and are not intentionally produced
6. What are the two types of Eating Disorders recognized by the DSM-IV?
[2 marks]
- Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
7. What are the four classification categories of Schizophrenia? [2 marks]
- Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, and Undifferentiated
8. List three types of Insight-Oriented therapy. [3 marks]
- Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Gestalt, Emotion Focused, or Process Experiential [any
three]
9. What are the three main categories of psychopharmacological drugs? [3
marks]
- Anti-Depressant, Anti-Anxiety, and Anti-Psychotic
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10. List six advantages of group therapy. [3 marks]
[any six for 1/2 mark each]
1) Efficiency 2) Universality
3) Empathy 4) Interaction
5) Acceptance 6) Altruism
7) Modeling 8) Pressure
9) Practice 10) Reality Testing
11) Transference
11. Describe three warning signs that signal a risk for suicide. [3 marks]
[any three, one mark each]
1) withdrawal from family and friends (social isolation)
2) changes in eating and sleeping patterns
3) writing or talking a lot about death
4) telling statements like “the world would be better off without me”, or
“I would be better off dead”, or “no one would miss me if I were dead”
5) periods of agitation followed by calm resignation
6) giving away valued possessions
7) taking care of unfinished business like debts and favours owed
1. List the areas covered by each of the 5 axes of the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual - fourth edition (DSM-IV) [5 marks]
Axis I all mental disorders (except)
Axis II personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III physical/medical disorders
Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (1-100)
2. How does Panic Disorder contribute to the development of Agoraphobia?
[3 marks]
- recurrent panic attacks cause distress associated with high risk places like malls,
restaurants, theatres, and other public places. As the fear of having a panic attack
increases a person may become more and more anxious about going out to public
places ‘till eventually the person does not want to go out at all for fear of having a
panic attack in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing.
3. What is Social Phobia and what fear is thought to be at the root of the
disorder? [3 marks]
- social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations,
particularly situations that involve exposure to unfamiliar people or to possible
evaluation by others.
- the underlying fear is thought to be a fear that one will do something stupid or
humiliating and that others will negatively evaluate the person leading to rejection,
loneliness and unhappiness.
4. What are the four types of Mood Episodes found in Mood Disorders?
[2 marks]
- Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Hypomanic Episode, Mixed Episode
5. What is Hypochondriasis? [2 marks]
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