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SOC211H5 (104)

chapter 9

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Reza Barmaki

Soc 211 ch 9 Structural functionalism • Talcott parsons (1902-1978) • American • Sociologist Organic analogy • • Life • Characteristics: • Self-regulating system (body) Adaptation • • Metabolism • Growth (physical) • Reproduction Single flu virus • • Does everything that other life forms do • In it's own way • Plants Do what other life forms do • • Organs • Preform specific functions • Contribute to existence of organism Existence of society (AGIL) • Adaptation - to situational exigency (environmental change, war, famine) • Goal attainment - must attain it's collective goal (population increases, health) • Integration - must regulate interactions (institutional, individual) • latency - maintain/renew cultural beliefs Society • System of interrelated organs (institutions) • key institutions • Economy • Polity • Family • Education • Religion Institutions • Hierarchy- ordered system of •Roles •Rewards •Expectations • Inequality is systematically produced • Institutions contribute to and compliment each other • Key institutions are made up of smaller parts • Ultimate result: •Existence of society (AGIL) Family • At the core of all civilizations • Sexual regulation •Mating and procreation •Production of future members • Socialization •A) behavioural codes B) cultural expectations • • Respect for authority, marriage etc. Education • Knowledge necessary to preform in economic area • Converting children into citizens •Care about collective goals and ideals Politics • Leadership •Too many pestered make a society fall apart • Protection • Law and order Economy • Necessities of life • Employment Religion • Moral codes Function of rules • Institutional integration •A) indicating institutional boundaries •B) indicating individual boundaries • Result: • Optimal functional performance Sources of deviance - methods of control 1) disregard of authority and rules • Remedies •Rigid socialization •Strict respect and obedience of authority •Rigid rule following •Absolute obedience to given commands •Also re-socialization • Family, army 2) role confusion • Forestalling strain When people are confused there is chaos and nobody knows what to do • •A) segregation • By space, time, role • Ex night and day managers •B) insulation • Symbolic segregation • Modes of address, titles • Sir, Sargent, corporal, manager, boss, employee • Inequality is functional •C) status priority • Avoiding role conflicts • Rank 3) Tension management • People must learn to • Channel stress into socially acceptable means: •A) allowing for mild forms of deviance Permitted, tolerated • •B) movement to alternative status with less stress • Police officer becomes a teacher 4) breaking rules • Blockage •A) increasing cost of deviance - makes people feel It is not worth it, shame •B) decreasing advantages of deviance 5) removal from society When deterrence doesn't work anymore and they keep being deviant • • For rehabilitation • Prison, mental hospital • Death • Hanging Robert k Merton • 1903-2003 • Mertons anomie theory • Discrepancy: Cultural goals - given to everyone • • Legitimate means - accessible to privileged groups • Race and class barriers In the us • Cultural goals • American dream • Materialistic happiness and prosperity and success • Home ownership, car, women • Assumptions • Everyone's free to do so Failures are individuals' faults • Legitimate means • Private schools • University education P227 Innovation • Accept goals • Illegitimate means Ritualism • Rejects goals • Accepts means Retreatism • Rejecting goals • Rejecting means Rebellion • Goals and means rejected • Substituted by new goals/means Albert cohen's status frustration theory • Most delinquent acts were not motivated by money • Most
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