SOC244H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Old Age Security, Total Fertility Rate, Childlessness

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Published on 3 Apr 2017
School
Department
Course
Professor
SOC244
Lecture 5
TT1; (Lecture notes and readings)
50% of MC (definitions and patterns, 50% of SA/LA (theoretical**(5 or 6). 1 hour and 45 mins.
Family Formation: Fertility, Childlessness, Adoption
Q: Decisions affecting fertility
-Want to have children or not
-When, age?, who you want to have the child with?, if you can support the child
financially?, where (residence)?, testing to determine any hereditary concerns that
may affect the child (need to be healthy to have a healthy child), physically or
psychologically to have a child.
-Contraceptives (delay it) or have it earlier.
-Unwanted pregnancy (abortion, adoption or keep the child)
-In all, there are many factors that affect the decision of having a child
Social Pressures to Have Children
- Our society has a pronatalist bias: Having children is taken for granted. Promotes
fertility (society encourages the birth of a child).
- Some of the strongest pressures may come from a couple’s parents
-Pronatalism is an ideology promoting child-bearing and glorifying parenthood, which
may include limiting access to abortion and contraception, as well as creating financial
and social incentives for the population to reproduce.
Pronatalism = pro-birth position; is a belief that promotes human reproduction.
Anti-natalist = negative value to birth – claim that one should not reproduce. Society is against
child bearing.
- There is still a great deal of social pressures to have children, or to follow the social
script (the social construct the individual’s behaviour towards what to do – to have kids
or not) – the society has ideas of what age, number, - social restricts that guide
individual behaviour on fertility
- The myth of motherhood says that motherhood is an instinct that can fulfill a woman in
away no other experience can
- Another part of the myth is the importance of having a child of each sex. Without all
four, the family is felt to be incomplete
Number of births in Canada
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(In Canada, migration
contributes more than
half of the population.
Avg. number of kids
=1.5 )
Total fertility rate in
Canada, 1926 – 2005
There should be at least 2 kids, because sometimes
children die before they reach reproduction. Replacement level fertility = 2.1
Canadian government is prenatalist: use of welfare policies to encourage couples to have more
kids.
Number of children per woman
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Fertility; developing countries; Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong is very rapid
Fertility in Africa and India is declining (developing countries)
**Reasons to explain fertility behaviour in terms of decision making:
- Old age security
- Biological drive to have kids
- Legacy (culture, value, job, property); bloodline
- Meaning in life
The Shrinking Family
- Although the pressure on couples to have children is almost as strong as ever, the size of
the Canadian family has been shrinking
- In order to replace the population, each woman must have 2.1 children
Costs of Having Children (economic theory)
- Costs of raising a child (from birth to the age of 18):
oDirect cost: Food, shelter, clothes, education, health etc.
oOpportunity Costs: (something that you lose)
Parents forego income and investment when they raise their children
Parents work additional hours and have less leisure time
Opportunity cost is the real cost of output forgone, lost time, swag,
pleasure or any other benefit that provides utility
Benefits of having children
- Having children turns a couple into a family
- You learn to be unselfish
- Children enrich your life
- Children are the world’s best teachers
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Document Summary

50% of mc (definitions and patterns, 50% of sa/la (theoretical**(5 or 6). Unwanted pregnancy (abortion, adoption or keep the child) In all, there are many factors that affect the decision of having a child. Our society has a pronatalist bias: having children is taken for granted. Promotes fertility (society encourages the birth of a child). Some of the strongest pressures may come from a couple"s parents. Pronatalism is an ideology promoting child-bearing and glorifying parenthood, which may include limiting access to abortion and contraception, as well as creating financial and social incentives for the population to reproduce. Pronatalism = pro-birth position; is a belief that promotes human reproduction. Anti-natalist = negative value to birth claim that one should not reproduce. The myth of motherhood says that motherhood is an instinct that can fulfill a woman in away no other experience can. Another part of the myth is the importance of having a child of each sex.

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