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Biological Sciences
Asish Mukhopadhyay

Fertilization, Preimplantation Development, Implantation FERTILIZATION Steps In fertilization 1. Penetrate Corona Radiata Corona Radiata - protein layer, hyluronic acid ECM - requires sperm swimming (CatSper Ca++ channel) - requires hyluronidase Catsper 2. Zona Pellucida binding - glycoprotein coat around oocyte - ZP3 binding ZP3 - sperm receptor: species specificty antibody blockage no ZP3 binding of fertilized eggs B-1,4 GALACTOSYLTRANFERASE 3. Acrosome Reaction / ZP penetration - outer acrosomal membrane fuses w/ sperm membrane - requires intracellular Ca rise, ZP3 binding, and Cδ4 Cδ4 - acrosin release not requried but helps disperse other proteases acrosin - ZP2 binding keeps sperm in place ZP2 4. Membrane Fusion - mediated by egg integrin + integrin sperm fertilin (ADAM-family fusion protein) fertilin 5. Cortical Reaction - calcium waves release cortical granules triggered by PLCζ PLCζ (in sperm) 6. Block to Polyspermy 7. Egg Activated, Meisois 2 completes, Pronuclei (male and female) form - sex is now determined - egg is metabolically active - diploidy restored Fertilization, Preimplantation Development, Implantation PRE-IMPLANTATION 1. Cleavage Divisions - embryo size DOES NOT change 2. Compaction - MORULA - E-Cadherin makes tight junctions on outer surface and creates E-Cadherin polarity (outer vs. inner) (uvomorulin) - Cadherin is essential for differentiation and zygote development (some maternal cadherin is present, but it quickly runs out) MORULA 3. Trophoectoderm/Inner Cell Mass Trophoectoderm TED - forms extraembryonic structures only Inner
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