A differentiation of social from antisocial conduct. The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters plants, and animals, or collectively: the land . Something deeper than just acting in legality or in accordance with incentives that influence our self-interest. An extension of our understanding of our place in the world, including our understanding of environmental change and sustainability, and our obligations to do it. Ethical frameworks we will discuss today: utilitarian cost-benefit analysis, approach act when the benefits of a policy in aggregate outweigh the costs, failures of purely economic approaches. Cannot adequately quantify all of the relevant costs and benefits in economic terms. Some things don"t gave clear (or any) monetary value: aesthetic value- capacity to elicit pleasure when experiences, existence value- knowing something exists, intrinsic value- right to exist not quantifiable lies in the thing itself . Economic models do poorly with irreversible an non-substitutable damages.