LING 1101 Lecture 7: Notes

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Lecture 7
(Wed, February 8)
Basic set of sounds that native speakers pay attention to - phonemes
Link to how writing systems are devised
Hebrew - abjad (a writing system without vowels)
English & Russian have alphabets
Chinese - morphographic - write morphemes
Logographic - write words
Ideographic - characters represent concepts
Phonographic (Hebrew, English, Russian are phonographic)
Important ideas:
Minimal pairs, complementary distribution, and phonemes
Natural classes
Writing systems
Thought experiment:
Suffixation of -en
Whiten, darken, blacken, thicken, shorten, etc.
Adjective + affix
-en
, [ɛn]
What is the rule for using -en
?
Attach -en
to an adjective, to make it into a verb
Except when the adjective ends in /n/, /o/, /u/, /l/ etc.
The constraint: does not apply when the adjective ends in a syllabic consonant or a
vowel (not quite, but almost)
Ex: palen → does not work
-en
attaches after:
/t/, /k/, /d/, /θ/, /s/
-en
does not attach after:
/n/, /oʊ/, /u/, /l̩/,/l/, /ɹ/, /m/
Natural class of sonorants (sounds you can ‘sing’)
Sonorants: includes vowel, glides, and nasals
As well as /ɹ/ and /l/
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