Three founding paradigms, or theoretical perspectives, in sociology. Provide an orienting framework ( or theoretical position) for asking questions about society and directing research. Structural functionalism (1940s-1950s): strives for stability and equilibrium views society as a system of interrelated structures or parts (larger parts like sewage, churches, educational institutions, the government, etc. ) that function/operate together to promote solidarity and stability. Each aspect of society serves a function and contributes to society"s functioning as a whole. If working properly, society functions in a way that is self -sustaining, it reaches an equilibrium. Herbert spencer - survival of the fittest, developed socioevolution. Emile durkheim - formally established the academic discipline of sociology, how societies could maintain their integrity. Manifest functions: conscious, deliberate, and beneficial functions. Latent functions: unconscious, unintended, and beneficial functions. Dysfunctions: unintended, unrecognized, and harmful; negatively affect society, disrupt stability and equilibrium. Davis-moore hypothesis: argues social stratification are a functional necessity for society.