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Lecture

FOS4209- Chemical and physical food hazards.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences
Course Code
FOS-4209
Professor
Arturo Figueroa

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FOS4209: Chemical and Physical Food Hazards
Chemical Hazards:
o 3 categories:
naturally occurring toxins
mycotoxins, shellfish, and seafood toxins, food allergens
intentionally added
preservatives
Incidental or unintentionally added
Drug residues, pesticide residues, unapproved food and
color additives, cleaning compounds and sanitizers
commonly used in the processing facility
o Naturally occurring toxins
Mycotoxins
Are toxic metabolites produced by fungi on foodstuffs
or animal feed that are capable of causing disease and
death in humands and animals
o Myco fungus and toxin poison
Mycotoxicoses is the disease caused by mycotoxins
Specific molds produce one or more toxins usually in
one specific kind of commodity or feed
Examples
o Aflatoxins corn
Poisoning resulting from ingestion of
aflatoxins in contaminated food or feed
A group of structurally related toxic
compounds produced by certain strains
of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A.
parasiticus
Four major aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1, and G2
Aflatoxin B1 is usually predominant and
most toxic (most potent carcinogen
known)
Effects of aflatoxins:
Vomiting, abdominal pain,
pulmonary edema, convulsions,
coma, death with cerebral edema
and fatty involvement of the liver,
kidneys, and heart, liver cancer
How to prevent aflatoxicosis:
Crop rotation
Irrigation to prevent drought
stress
Control of weeds and insects
Cultivation of mold-resistant
stocks
Rapid drying after harvesting
Avoid damaged kernels by sorting
Appropriate moisture content
during storage
Detoxification and
decontamination using chemical
methods
o Fumonisin common grain mold
o Ochratoxins produced by aspergillus and
penicillium molds
Associated foods:
Contamination occurs during production, harvest,
storage, or processing
Agricultural commodities with the high risk of aflatoxin
contamination are: corn, peanuts, and cottonseed
High moisture content or stored in high humidity
Other grains and nuts are susceptible but less prone to
contamination
Milk, eggs, and meat products are occasionally
contaminated due to the consumption of aflatoxin-
contaminated feed by animals
INTENTIONALLY ADDED:
o In most cases, intentional addition of these chemicals to food isn’t to
cause harm, but to defraud for financial gain.
o Sudan Dyes:
Sudan I-IV = synthetic azo dyes
Used to color products like show polish, automotive
paints, and petroleum derivatives
Not permitted food colors
They are recognized as carcinogens
They are added to foods such as palm oil and chili
powder
Have been found in chili powders imported from India
as well as other products containing this chili powder
Toxic effect:
o Cancer-causing effect
o Genotoxic effect (cause damage to the DNA)
o Melamine:
Is synthetic chemical
Used in the production of resins and foams, cleaning
products, fertilizers and pesticides
Not allowed to be used as a food ingredient
Fraudulently added o food product to make the food to
appear to have more protein due to its high nitrogen
content

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Description
FOS4209: Chemical and Physical Food Hazards  Chemical Hazards: o 3 categories:  naturally occurring toxins  mycotoxins, shellfish, and seafood toxins, food allergens  intentionally added  preservatives  Incidental or unintentionally added  Drug residues, pesticide residues, unapproved food and color additives, cleaning compounds and sanitizers commonly used in the processing facility o Naturally occurring toxins  Mycotoxins  Are toxic metabolites produced by fungi on foodstuffs or animal feed that are capable of causing disease and death in humands and animals o Myco  fungus and toxin  poison  Mycotoxicoses is the disease caused by mycotoxins  Specific molds produce one or more toxins usually in one specific kind of commodity or feed  Examples o Aflatoxins – corn  Poisoning resulting from ingestion of aflatoxins in contaminated food or feed  A group of structurally related toxic compounds produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  Four major aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1, and G2  Aflatoxin B1 is usually predominant and most toxic (most potent carcinogen known)  Effects of aflatoxins:  Vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary edema, convulsions, coma, death with cerebral edema and fatty involvement of the liver, kidneys, and heart, liver cancer  How to prevent aflatoxicosis:  Crop rotation  Irrigation to prevent drought stress  Control of weeds and insects  Cultivation of mold-resistant stocks  Rapid drying after harvesting  Avoid damaged kernels by sorting  Appropriate moisture content during storage  Detoxification and decontamination using chemical methods o Fumonisin – common grain mold o Ochratoxins – produced by aspergillus and penicillium molds  Associated foods:  Contamination occurs during production, harvest, storage, or processing  Agricultural commodities with the high risk of aflatoxin contamination are: corn, peanuts, and cottonseed  High moisture content or stored in high humidity  Other grains and nuts are susceptible but less prone to contamination  Milk, eggs, and meat products are occasionally contaminated due to the consumption of aflatoxin- contaminated feed by animals  INTENTIONALLY ADDED: o In most cases, intentional addition of these chemicals to food isn’t to cause harm, but to defraud for financial gain. o Sudan Dyes:  Sudan I-IV = synthetic azo dyes  Used to color products like show polish, automotive paints, and petroleum derivatives  Not permitted food colors  They are recognized as carcinogens  They are added to foods such as palm oil and chili powder  Have been found in chili powders imported from India as well as other products containing this chili powder  Toxic effect: o Cancer-causing effect o Genotoxic effect (cause damage to the DNA) o Melamine:  Is synthetic chemical  Used in the production of resins and foams, cleaning products, fertilizers and pesticides  Not allowed to be used as a food ingredient  Fraudulently added o food product to make the food to appear to have more protein due to its high nitrogen content  Pet food in the USA as found to be causing kidney disease and death in cats and dogs  Caused by melamine and a related chemical, cyanuric acid  Added to powdered milk and grain products in China, white rabbit creamy candies, Mr.Brown iced coffee  Effect of exposure to melamine:  Low levels of melamine produced no observable toxic effects  High levels of melamine causes urinary tract and kidney crystal and stone formation, and kidney failure  High levels of melamine over long time periods (years) have been associated with cancer of the bladder  Toxic mushrooms  100 species are poisonous  15-20 are lethal when ingested  95% of cases are misidentification  can
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