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Lecture 2

PSYC 251 Lecture 2: Lecture Notes 1:24Premium

8 pages67 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC-251
Professor
Jesse Brand
Lecture
2

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Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry
We have to go over basic neuroanatomy and neurochemistry to have a foundation of brain-
behavior relationships aka “neuropsychology”
Brief history
Basic neuronal anatomy and action potential
Supportive cells
Vascular and ventricular systems
Major brain regions, lobes
Directional labels
Memory structures
Language structures,
Subcortical systems
Neurochemistry
Hippocrates said that the brain was the seat of all mental activity and that when the brain isn’t
working, you get mental and emotional problems
Galen said the brain was responsible for mental activity.
The link between brain and cognition built steam in the renaissance.
Mind-brain problem How does the concrete brain give rise to an abstract mind?
The brain is part of the nervous system
CNSbrain and spinal cord
Periphernl nervous systemeverything else, nerves in arms & legs, for example
The brain is a collection of
Neuronssmallest unis that process and transmit information in the nervous system
o Made up of cell body (nucleus + other organelles), dendrites (relatively short,
receive information), axon (relatively long, output)
Glial cells (supportive)
Blood vessels
Information is electrical and chemical
Electricalaction potential travels down the axon, using a sudden influx of sodium ions to
transport a charge
The message gets ot the synapse, the gap between cells, where the message is chemical. NTs
diffuse from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron & can be excitatory or
inhibitory signalscausing or stopping an action potential. NTs are chemical messengers.
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Whether an action potential occurs depends on the summation of all chemical messages. The
action potential either does or does not occur, there is not a middle ground.
The action potential is speded along by the myelin sheath, and electrically insulating material
that wraps around the axon allowing the action potential to jump from node (called nodes of
Ranvier) to node.
They are what make white matter white.
Glial cells make up the support system for neurons:
1. Astrocytessupport neurons mechanically, regulate metabolism, respond to brain
injury
2. Oligodendrocytesmyelination
3. Microgliadispose of debris
4. Ependymal cellsmake CSF, line the ventricular system
The brain gets blood from the neurovasculatureblood vessels in the brain.
Anterior cerebral artery
Middle cerebral Artery
Posterior cerebral artery
You have a right and left one of each of these.
There are four internal cavities called ventricles. They are filled with CSF.
Govern pressure dynamics
Chemical regulation
Provides brain with nutrients
Make brain buoyant
Why do we have it?
makes the brain lighter
also allows room for swelling or growth
We have two lateral ventricles, a third ventricle, a cerebral aqueduct, and a fourth ventricle.
Major brain regions
Forebrain
o Cerebral hemispheres
o Diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary
Midbrain
o We don’t talk about this one
Hindbrain aka brainstem
o Medulla, pons, cerebellum
o Responsible with basic functions we need to live
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Neuropsychology mostly works with the forebrain.
Labels
Dorsal/ventral = top/bottom
Rostral/caudal & anterior/posterior = front/back
Medial/ lateral = middle / side
Slices of images
Axial= parallel to floor
Sagittal- straight down the middle
Coronal- splits into front and back
Four lopes
Frontal executive
Temporal language, memory
Parietal special,
Occipital visual
The brain can also be divided into input and output.
Input through the back and then output through the front.
So we’re going to take apart the frontal lobe
Prefrontal Cortex
o Orbitofrontal/ventromedial
Right behind your eyes
Emotional regulation, reward monitoring, personality
o Dorsolateral
Working memory, planning, problem-solving, multitasking
o Dorsomedial
Intentional and behavioral activationmakes sure that once we know
how to act, we actually do it
Problems less common because it’s buried
Extensive damage causes akinetic mutismalert & awake but unable to
move or speak
Premotor Cortex
Primary Motor Cortex
Behavior = action, behavior, and motor
The temporal Lobe
Temporal Polar cortex
o Integration of sensory information
o Semantic memory—facts that you didn’t experience
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