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Lecture 2

PSY 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Habituation, Green Paper, Anterograde Amnesia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 110
Professor
Nauta
Lecture
2

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Study Guide Exam 2
Learning a change in behavior, resulting from experience
Classical Conditioning a type of learned response in which a neutral object comes to elicit a response
when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces a response
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) a stimulus that elicits a response that is innate and does not require any
prior learning
Unconditioned Response (UR) a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
Conditioned Response (CR) - a response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned
Acquisition the gradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Extinction a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is
repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery a process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges after the
conditioned stimulus is presented again
Stimulus Generalization learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the
conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
Stimulus Discrimination a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is
consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the
likelihood that the action will be performed in the future
Shaping the operant conditioning technique of shaping consists of reinforcing behaviors that are
increasingly similar to the desired behavior; can be used to train animals to perform unusual behaviors
Positive Reinforcement the addition of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be
repeated
Negative Reinforcement the removal of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be
repeated
Positive Punishment the addition of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will recur
Negative Punishment the removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will recur
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI) - reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after a predetermined
amount of time since the last reward
Variable Interval Schedule (VI) - reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after an
unpredictable and varying amount of time since the last reward
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Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) - reinforcing a particular behavior after that behavior has occurred a
predetermined amount of times
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR) - reinforcing a particular behavior after the behavior has occurred an
unpredictable and varying number of times
Observational Learning the acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one
performance of that behavior
Modeling the imitation of behavior through observational learning
Vicarious Conditioning learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or
punished for performing the action
Memory the nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge for later retrieval
Encoding the processing of information so that it can be stored
Storage the retention of encoded representations over time
Retrieval the act of recalling or remembering stored information when it is needed
Attention focusing mental resources on information; allows further processing for perception,
memory, and response
Sensory Storage a memory storage system that very briefly holds a vast amount of information from
the five senses in close to their original sensory formats
Short-Term Storage a memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of information of
awareness
Working Memory an active processing system that allows manipulation of different types of
information to keep it available for current use
Chunking using working memory to organize information into meaningful units to make it easier to
remember
Long-Term Storage a memory storage system that allows relatively permanent storage, probably of an
unlimited amount of information
Maintenance Rehearsal using working memory processes to repeat information based on how it
sounds (auditory information); provides only shallow encoding of information and less successful long-
term storage
Elaborative Rehearsal using working memory processes to think about how new information relates to
ourselves or our prior knowledge (semantic information); provides deeper encoding of information for
more successful long-term storage
Retrograde Amnesia a condition in which people lose the ability to access memories they had before a
brain injury
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Anterograde Amnesia a condition in which people lose the ability to form new memories after
experiencing a brain injury
Explicit Memory the system for long-term storage of conscious memories that can be verbally
described
Episodic Memory a type of explicit memory that includes a person's personal experiences
Semantic Memory a type of explicit memory that includes a person's knowledge about the world
Implicit Memory the system for long-term storage of unconscious memories that cannot be verbally
described
Procedural Memory a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
Consolidation a process by which immediate memories become lasting through long-term storage
Retrieval Cue anything that helps a person access information in long-term storage
Retroactive Interference when access to older memories is impaired by older memories
Proactive Interference when access to newer memories is impaired by older memories
Chapter 6
Be able to make distinctions among classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational
learning. The graphic on p. 198 will help you do this.
Be sure you understand how classical conditioning occurs. Understand the diagram on p. 202 and be
sure you could identify the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli and responses in situations that I
might describe. For example, I might give you a situation like this: Several years in a row, Anthony
received very nice birthday presents that were wrapped in green paper. Now, whenever Anthony sees
green paper, he feels a little twinge of excitement. In this situation, be sure you could identify the
neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and
conditioned response.
The Chapter 6 self-quiz (in Appendix B; pp. B-10 through B-11) will help you assess your understanding
of the ateial i this hapte. Most of the uestios ae siila to those ou’ll eoute o ea i
class, but Questions 2 and 8 are not similar to the kinds of questions you’ll fid o the ea eause
Question 2 asks about habituation and Question 8 asks about latent learning, both of which I indicated
you do not need to know about for this exam).
How is classical conditioning acquired? What is the ideal timing of the presentation of the stimuli?
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