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Lecture 15

CEUS-R 310 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Shifting Cultivation, Mixed Economy, Phenotypic Plasticity

6 pages35 viewsFall 2015

Department
Central Eurasian Studies
Course Code
CEUS-R 310
Professor
Elisabeth Lloyd
Lecture
15

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Definitions and Lists
Anthropology: the study of mankind, why we behave, look, vary from other
cultures
Archaeology- the study of the materials, artifacts, and cultures in past
Biological- focus on humans as a biological species. Genetics, evolution,
fossils, biology of living people, nonhuman primates
Socio-Culture- how and why human cultures differ. Kinship, religion,
ecology economics
Linguistic- language. similarities and differences in 3,000 languages
Subsistence: the quest for food; how obtained, what was eaten, which seasons,
how prepared, extremely variable in the world
Economy- system of production, distribution, and consumption of
resources
Meal- direct evidence
Diet- pattern of consumption over time
food: what it was and who ate it
o economy, social organization (access to what food), ethnicity and
identity (what can the food we eat tell us about our identity?)
Subsistence Strategies: correlation between economy and social features
Foraging/Hunting and Gathering-
o small groups
o related through kinship and marriage
o seasonal disbursement and aggregation
o high mobility (movement; don’t stay one place for long)
o distinctions based on age and gender
Horticulture-
o farming without intensive use of land, labor, capital, or machinery
o simple tools
o shifting cultivation (move plot every few years, not permanent)
o Slash & Burn: clear land by cutting down forest and grass then
burning it. Ash fertilizers soil, and crops are sown, tended,
harvested mixed economies ( farming + hunting/gathering)
Agriculture-
o more labor
o use land intensively and continuously
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o greater labor demands (could use plows, domesticated animals,
irrigation, terracing)
o increased sedentism (people stay in one place longer)
o larger and more permanent communities; closer to other
settlements
Pastoralism/Herding-
o herders: cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yaks
o dairy products, meat, blood, fur (get from animals)
o Movement Patterns ( 2 types):
pastoral nomadism: entire groups moves with herd
transhumance: part of group moves with herd
Reconstructing Subsistence Patterns- food, animals and plants, related
economy, meal vs. diet, subsistence strategies
Zooarchaeology: the study of past human use of animals
bones, teeth, antlers, shells, feathers, eggs, etc.
o 1. Identification
locomotion patterns (difference how dogs run vs. how pigs
run)
diet (teeth and senses)
evolution (animal relations)
o 2. Quantification
Number of Identified Specimens ( NISP )
Minimum Number of Individuals ( MNI )
Cultural Processing During Deposition:
o animal are captured, transported, butchered, processed, and
cooked
Natural Processes After Deposition:
o taphonomy: studies of death; processing includes…(what affects
the bones)
weathering, trampling, carnivores, rodents, burrowing
Factors Affecting Data:
o Factors that CAN’T be Controlled:
past human behavior, transformations after humans
o Factors that CAN be Controlled:
where and how to dig (Analysis)
samples: (start larger the going smaller on the way
down)
o alive animals
o buried bones
o preserved bones
o bones in excavation area
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