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CEUS-R 310 (15)
Lecture 15

CEUS-R 310 Lecture 15: 15

6 Pages
31 Views
Fall 2015

Department
Central Eurasian Studies
Course Code
CEUS-R 310
Professor
Elisabeth Lloyd
Lecture
15

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Definitions and Lists
Anthropology: the study of mankind, why we behave, look, vary from other
cultures
Archaeology- the study of the materials, artifacts, and cultures in past
Biological- focus on humans as a biological species. Genetics, evolution,
fossils, biology of living people, nonhuman primates
Socio-Culture- how and why human cultures differ. Kinship, religion,
ecology economics
Linguistic- language. similarities and differences in 3,000 languages
Subsistence: the quest for food; how obtained, what was eaten, which seasons,
how prepared, extremely variable in the world
Economy- system of production, distribution, and consumption of
resources
Meal- direct evidence
Diet- pattern of consumption over time
food: what it was and who ate it
o economy, social organization (access to what food), ethnicity and
identity (what can the food we eat tell us about our identity?)
Subsistence Strategies: correlation between economy and social features
Foraging/Hunting and Gathering-
o small groups
o related through kinship and marriage
o seasonal disbursement and aggregation
o high mobility (movement; don’t stay one place for long)
o distinctions based on age and gender
Horticulture-
o farming without intensive use of land, labor, capital, or machinery
o simple tools
o shifting cultivation (move plot every few years, not permanent)
o Slash & Burn: clear land by cutting down forest and grass then
burning it. Ash fertilizers soil, and crops are sown, tended,
harvested mixed economies ( farming + hunting/gathering)
Agriculture-
o more labor
o use land intensively and continuously
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o greater labor demands (could use plows, domesticated animals,
irrigation, terracing)
o increased sedentism (people stay in one place longer)
o larger and more permanent communities; closer to other
settlements
Pastoralism/Herding-
o herders: cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yaks
o dairy products, meat, blood, fur (get from animals)
o Movement Patterns ( 2 types):
pastoral nomadism: entire groups moves with herd
transhumance: part of group moves with herd
Reconstructing Subsistence Patterns- food, animals and plants, related
economy, meal vs. diet, subsistence strategies
Zooarchaeology: the study of past human use of animals
bones, teeth, antlers, shells, feathers, eggs, etc.
o 1. Identification
locomotion patterns (difference how dogs run vs. how pigs
run)
diet (teeth and senses)
evolution (animal relations)
o 2. Quantification
Number of Identified Specimens ( NISP )
Minimum Number of Individuals ( MNI )
Cultural Processing During Deposition:
o animal are captured, transported, butchered, processed, and
cooked
Natural Processes After Deposition:
o taphonomy: studies of death; processing includes…(what affects
the bones)
weathering, trampling, carnivores, rodents, burrowing
Factors Affecting Data:
o Factors that CAN’T be Controlled:
past human behavior, transformations after humans
o Factors that CAN be Controlled:
where and how to dig (Analysis)
samples: (start larger the going smaller on the way
down)
o alive animals
o buried bones
o preserved bones
o bones in excavation area
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Description
Definitions and Lists Anthropology: the study of mankind, why we behave, look, vary from other cultures Archaeology the study of the materials, artifacts, and cultures in past Biological focus on humans as a biological species. Genetics, evolution, fossils, biology of living people, nonhuman primates SocioCulture how and why human cultures differ. Kinship, religion, ecology economics Linguistic language. similarities and differences in 3,000 languages Subsistence: the quest for food; how obtained, what was eaten, which seasons, how prepared, extremely variable in the world Economy system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources Meal direct evidence Diet pattern of consumption over time food: what it was and who ate it o economy, social organization (access to what food), ethnicity and identity (what can the food we eat tell us about our identity?) Subsistence Strategies: correlation between economy and social features ForagingHunting and Gathering o small groups o related through kinship and marriage o seasonal disbursement and aggregation o high mobility (movement; dont stay one place for long) o distinctions based on age and gender Horticulture o farming without intensive use of land, labor, capital, or machinery o simple tools o shifting cultivation (move plot every few years, not permanent) o Slash Burn: clear land by cutting down forest and grass then burning it. Ash fertilizers soil, and crops are sown, tended, harvested mixed economies ( farming + huntinggathering) Agriculture o more labor o use land intensively and continuously
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