- Socio-Economic Status (SES)
- High SES
- The role of the community
- The role of culture
- Review: the dynamic family system affects each family member both
directly and indirectly.
- The relationship of individual and family members is interrelated and
- The child’s environment consists of many influences that combine/
interplay to affect the course of development.
Environmental context –
- The family
- Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning
- The impact of Poverty
- Community (neighborhoods and schools)
- The culture Context
o An index of a family’s or individuals social position and economic well-
o Ways to measure SES—some quantification of family income, parental
education, and occupational status.
o SES is linked to timing of parenthood and family size. SES groups also
differ in child-rearing values and expectations
o SES is positively correlated with cognitive, language development,
academic success and socio-emotional outcomes in children.
o In all societies, there is a significant association between SES and health.
HIGHER SES FAMILIES - Family structure tends to be smaller
- To place greater emphasis on nurturing psychological traits
- To promote warm, verbally stimulating interaction with children.
- Provide abundant learning resources
- Home computer use on child and adolescent development
- Lower SES is associated with increased environmental exposures
- Health risk factors ( toxins, lack of sanitary facilities)
- Lower SES parents often stress external characteristics and engage in
harsh, restrictive child rearing practi