ANTHROP 3401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: National Historic Preservation Act Of 1966, Ground-Penetrating Radar, Systematic Sampling

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Anthro 3401
1
Archaeological Field Methods
February
I. Archaeological Research Design Field Methods
A. Archaeological survey
1. Regional focus
2. A little information on many sites
3. Good for broad social questions
B. Archaeological excavation
1. Local focus
2. Lots of information about one site
3. Good for chronological questions
II. Phase I (Reconnaissance) Survey Identification of Archaeological Deposits
A. How do we find archaeological sites?
1. Written documents/site files
a. Papyrus is paper like material from the pith of the papyrus plant
b. National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA, 1966)
2. Informants
a. Native American informants
3. Aerial photography
4. Surface or pedestrian survey
a. Total coverage
i. APE logging in National Forest to the west of HWY 108
ii. Important for projects that will damage area
iii. Time consuming
b. Sampling
i. Non-probabilistic
i. Useful for archaeologists interested in known sites
from informants, aerial photography, etc.
ii. Survey in tightly constrained to known sites
ii. Random
i. Random distribution sampling of full coverage
surveys
ii. Useful if you know nothing about a region or if you
are testing a hypothesis about site locations or
density
iii. Stratified random
i. Random sampling within ecozones; each zone
receives random sample proportional to its surface
area
ii. Useful when asking regional questions about
seasonal sites, site variability based in
ecology/environment, etc.
iv. Systematic
i. Survey occurs in the same location across a grid
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