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Lecture 7

HISTORY 2720 Lecture 7: Lesson 7 - Early Solar System
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4 Pages
61 Views
Spring 2018

Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 2720
Professor
Samuel White
Lecture
7

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Molecules in space couldn't do much unless surrounding starsi.
Our solar systems started with a flattening disk that led to fusion.ii.
99% of the matter is the sun, the 1% is the rest of the solar systemiii.
Outer gassy planets contain 99% of the rest of the materialiv.
Accretion: material gathers together through collisions and materials orbiting then
forming together
v.
Part 2A.
Contains great diversity of materials1.
Universe is getting more complex, diverse, and intersting2.
4th threshold: formation of earth and solar systemi.
Part 3B.
Big History Project: How did the Earth and Solar System form?I.
12/14/17
How did the Solar System Form?
Hist 2720: Big History
Originally proposed by Immanuel Kant and Pierre-Simon de Laplace two centuries ago
Interstellar gas and dust gathers and collapses under its own gravity
As it collapses, it gathers angular momentum, spins faster and flattens out
Planets gather in orbiting disk of dust (protoplanetary disk) around large central sun
Collapsing Cloud Model
No direct evidence, just a reasonable hypothesis
Why so little angular momentum in the sun?
Some initial problems…
Hard to see how else the sun could have captured planets
Captured objects would orbit in different planes and direction
Or why all the planets orbit in the same direction and same plane
…but no good alternatives
Asteroids and meteors as leftovers from early solar system, haven't gone through tectonics
that ruin the early structure
Composition of meteorites helps reveal process of accretion
New Evidence: Space Rocks
Same number of protons, different number of neutrons
Stable isotopes reveal provenance of matter - don't spontaneously decay over time; come
from same place/process
Radioactive isotopes reveal age through radiometric dating - decay at regular periods over
time
Solar system 4.55 billion years old
New Evidence: Isotopes
Determine composition of other planets, moons, and asteroids
Understand geology and change in Mars and Venus
New Evidence: Extraplanetary Missions (landers and space craft)
Dust clumps in pebbles shown through experiments
Planetesimals gather matter and become planets
But how do we get from pebbles to planetesimals?
New Evidence: Experiments and Models of Accretion
Lesson 7
Sunday, January 28, 2018 10:29 PM
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Description
Lesson 7 Sunday, January 28, 2018 10:29 PM I. Big History Project: How did the Earth and Solar System form? A. Part 2 i. Molecules in space couldnt do much unless surrounding stars ii. Our solar systems started with a flattening disk that led to fusion. iii. 99 of the matter is the sun, the 1 is the rest of the solar system iv. Outer gassy planets contain 99 of the rest of the material v. Accretion: material gathers together through collisions and materials orbiting then forming together B. Part 3 i. 4th threshold: formation of earth and solar system 1. Contains great diversity of materials 2. Universe is getting more complex, diverse, and intersting 121417 How did the Solar System Form? Hist 2720: Big History Collapsing Cloud Model Originally proposed by Immanuel Kant and PierreSimon de Laplace two centuries ago Interstellar gas and dust gathers and collapses under its own gravity As it collapses, it gathers angular momentum, spins faster and flattens out Planets gather in orbiting disk of dust (protoplanetary disk) around large central sun Some initial problems No direct evidence, just a reasonable hypothesis Why so little angular momentum in the sun? but no good alternatives Hard to see how else the sun could have captured planets Or why all the planets orbit in the same direction and same plane Captured objects would orbit in different planes and direction New Evidence: Space Rocks Asteroids and meteors as leftovers from early solar system, havent gone through tectonics that ruin the early structure Composition of meteorites helps reveal process of accretion New Evidence: Isotopes Same number of protons, different number of neutrons Stable isotopes reveal provenance of matter dont spontaneously decay over time; come from same placeprocess Radioactive isotopes reveal age through radiometric dating decay at regular periods over time Solar system 4.55 billion years old New Evidence: Extraplanetary Missions (landers and space craft) Determine composition of other planets, moons, and asteroids Understand geology and change in Mars and Venus New Evidence: Experiments and Models of Accretion Dust clumps in pebbles shown through experiments Planetesimals gather matter and become planets But how do we get from pebbles to planetesimals?
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