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The Nature of Argumentation Argument - verbal hostility Argumentation - a form of instrumental communication relying on reasoning and proof to influence belief or behavior through the use of spoken or written messages. Argumentation is a set of concepts or ideas. Audience: consists of one or more persons capable of being influenced of the arguers message - accept or reject it. Field of Argument: Your topic. Rules of Engagement: general rules, field specific rules - specify degree of persuasion that the audience demands in the evidence they have heard or read. Mode of Resolution: how do you end your argument. Ex: call to action, discussion Characteristics: Demographic - sex, marital, political affiliation, education, economic & professional status, ethnicity, cultural heritage. Psychographic - shared attitudes, values, beliefs, emotional status. Rhetoric: the communication skills necessary to fulfill decision making needs. Grounded in choice and designed to persuade or change the listener. Messages are receiver oriented Presenter is responsible for everything. 3 Theoretical Perspectives Rhetorical: how we use communication skills to teach others. Dialectical: structure of conversation. Logical: series of formal rules from informal ones. Ethics Ethical argument tells the truth. Todd Aiken Building Blocks of an argument. Teleological: argument built around results. Deontological: right/wrong Clarity Honesty Efficiency Relevance ⬇ ⬇ Perspective, trust, knowledge, accuracy ⬇ Don't waste time Decoding - the interpretive process that the audience and other members use to come to a conclusion. Argumentative Fields A social or professional context in which people argue to make decisions or build a body of knowledge. Field Dependent Rules Specific to a particular field Standards ✷Field Invariant Not specific Applies anywhere The Proposition A statement that identifies the argumentative ground and points to a change in belief or behavior. ✷Has to be worded neutrally Presumption The status quo stands until given good reason to change. Burden of Proof The advocate must provide good reason to change. Prima Facia Case On it’s face, the advocates case provides reason to change. Inherency The problem exists because of the status quo. Keys to Effect Argumentation Define the key terms Specify the direction of change Identify key issues - central ?’s The Proposition Phrasing the proposition A clear statement of the change desired A simple declarative statement Phrased in neutral terms Why’s it Matter? Understanding context enables one to determine what exactly you need to prove. Understanding presumption and burden of proof also enables one to determine what they need to do in a argument. Understanding exactly what it is you are arguing about (proposition) saves time and frustration. Chapter 3 Proposition A statement that identifies the argumentative ground and points to a change in belief or behavior. Clarify meaning of terms Specify direction of change Identify key terms Proposition Classifications Propositions of policy Recommended change in behavior or create a call to action, “should propositions” Advocate Facts support problem exists Part of policy causing problems Why change offers better policy Opponent (status quo) Facts supported problems Emphasize strengths Value-judgement advocates weakness How to Prepare for a Midterm Go through notes and reading → understand bold and italicized terms. End of chapter work 1 → 3, 5 2 → 1, 4 3 → 1 Review Prima Facie cases, Pg. 30 - 33 Stock issues Presumption: the term that specifies who occupies this ground at the beginning of the controversy. ⬇ 2 Types: Artificial: demonstrates how presumption is influenced by a field. Natural: derives from the observation of the natural order of whatever field we find ourselves in at a given time. “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Anglican Archbishop Richard Whately ✷Tells us what the audience presently views as adequate and deserving of continuation. Burden of Proof: the obligation of the advocate to contest the ground by offering arguments that are logically sufficient to challenge presumption. Prima Facie Case: “at first sight” or “on the face of it” is sufficient to justify belief or behavior.. Suspension of presumption Fulfills burden of proof Inherency: the social structure or attitude responsible for causing the present state of belief or behavior to exist. Prepositions: A statement that identifies the argumentative ground and points to a change in belief or behavior. Denotative Function: using language to exchange information Connotative Function: react to what happens around us Terministic Screen: both functions ⤴ Classification of Props Factual - seek to alter our beliefs Value - attempt to alter by examining our subjective reactions to things and our opinions of them. ↓ Value Object - thing being evaluated Value Judgement Term - the portion of the value proposition that identifies broad criteria by which a value object is to be measured; the predicate of the subject. Policy - characterized by the word should Declarative sentence makes an assertion. Simple-declarative sentence makes an assertion that something is a fact. Equivocal terms - have two or more equally correct meanings. Vague terms - have shades of meaning. Lack clear-cut definitions. Technical terms - jargon or specialized terms of a particular field/profession. New terms - additions to the language → don’t exist in common vocabulary. Coined terms - invented when a convenient term does not already exist. Chapter 4 Actual issues - questions central to the specific need for knowledge. Primary Inference - the conclusion you draw about what you believe the proposition means based on the information contained in your definition of key terms. Chapter 5 Factual claims - argue what was, is, or will be Definitual claims - argue how so
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