01:119:115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Product Rule, Mutual Exclusivity, Phenotype

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Biology Lecture 12
A. Heredity and Genetics
a. Genetics The science of heredity
b. Heredity Transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring
c. Basic patterns of inheritance: 1. Blending Hypothesis
i. Gametes contain fluids
ii. Offspring are a blend of both parents
iii. Every generation should be more uniform (less variation)
d. 2. Particulate Hypothesis
i. Medel’s experiets disproved ledig iheritae
ii. Charateristis are passed fro geeratio to geeratio through disrete
partiles gees
iii. Variation is maintained/increased over time
e. Basic Terms
i. Homologous Chromosomes
ii. Gene
iii. Alleles: alternative form of a gene for one character
iv. Locus (loci)
v. Homozygous possessing an identical pair of alleles on homologous
chromosomes
vi. Heterozygous possessing two different alleles on homologous chromosomes
vii. Dominance: one allele masks the expression of another allele at the same locus
viii. Phenotype physical appearance of an organism
ix. Genotype genetic makeup of an organism
x. Ex. PP purple flower + pp white flower. P dominant masks p recessive, thus
phenotype is purple flower, genetic makeup is Pp.
f. Medel’s experiets
i. Experimental organism: garden peas (pisum sativum)
ii. Character: A heritable feature that varies among individuals (flower colors)
iii. Traits: Variant for a character (purple, white)
iv. True-Breeding line: produces only offspring that express the same phenotype
generation after generation
v. Quantitative methods
g. From DNA to phenotype
i. Through a series of steps, this DNA sequence results in production of an enzyme
that helps synthesize purple pigment
ii. The other DNA sequence results in the absence of the enzyme
h. Principle of segregation (First law of inheritance)
i. Monohybrid cross
ii. The two alleles separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in
different gametes
B. Review Questions
a. A pear plant with the genotype Aa can produce gametes containing
i. Either A or Aa
ii. Only dominant A
iii. Only recessive a
iv. Either A or a
v. Either AA, Aa, or aa
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