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Lecture 4

SOC 201 Lecture 4: SOC 201 Midterm 2

3 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 201
Professor
Rebekah Burroway

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SOC 201
MIDTERM No. 2
MARCH 9th
Chapter 6
OBSERVATIONAL METHODS
Quantitative Method:
Requires variables. Outcomes must be countable.
Tests hypotheses
Typically uses large samples
Data are numerical
Results are expressed as comparisons of numbers
Less depth and nuance
Often previous experience or research is required
Easier to provide objective results
Methods are well-defined and reproducible
Qualitative Methods:
Observe and report.
Describes people, their behavior, their environment.
Typically uses smaller samples
Data are non-numerical
Results are expressed as verbal descriptions and narratives
More depth and nuance
A good place to start
More difficult to remain objective
One’s own biases
Biases of the observed
Methods may be impossible to reproduce
Naturalistic observations:
Field Work
Researchers make observations in a natural setting over a period of time
Used to describe and understand how people in a social or cultural setting live, work, and
experience the setting
Process
Describes setting, events, and the person
Analyze the categories that emerge
Researches must interpret what occurred
Generate hypothesis that helps explain what was observed
Write a final report of results
Problem
Researcher participation can affect what is to be observed
Research concealment poses ethical quandaries
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Description
SOC 201 MIDTERM No. 2 MARCH 9 th Chapter 6 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS Quantitative Method: Requires variables. Outcomes must be countable. Tests hypotheses Typically uses large samples Data are numerical Results are expressed as comparisons of numbers Less depth and nuance Often previous experience or research is required Easier to provide objective results Methods are welldefined and reproducible Qualitative Methods: Observe and report. Describes people, their behavior, their environment. Typically uses smaller samples Data are nonnumerical Results are expressed as verbal descriptions and narratives More depth and nuance A good place to start More difficult to remain objective Ones own biases Biases of the observed Methods may be impossible to reproduce Naturalistic observations: Field Work Researchers make observations in a natural setting over a period of time Used to describe and understand how people in a social or cultural setting live, work, and experience the setting Process Describes setting, events, and the person Analyze the categories that emerge Researches must interpret what occurred Generate hypothesis that helps explain what was observed Write a final report of results Problem Researcher participation can affect what is to be observed Research concealment poses ethical quandaries
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