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Lecture 4

BIOL 600 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Thrombocytopenia, Coagulation, Diarrhea

24 pages82 viewsSpring 2015

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 600
Professor
Kyle Smith
Lecture
4

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Blood 2/5/15 9:04 AM
Blood
The only fluid tissue in human body
Classified as connective tissue
Components of blood
1) Living cells called formed elements
Erythrocytes – red blood cells – transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes – white blood cells - defend against bodies pathogens
Platelets – cell fragments formed from megakaryocytes, important in blood clotting
2) Non-living matrix: plasma is the fluid and solutes
-cytes means it is a mature cell type
-blasts means it is an immature cell type
Blood Hematocrit
When blood is centrifuged
Erythrocytes sink to the bottom (45% of blood, percentage known as hematocrit)
Buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets (less than 1% of blood), the buffy coat is a thin whitish layer
between the erythrocytes and plasma
Plasma rises to the top (55% of blood)
Average blood volume
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Women: 5.0 L
Men: 5.5 L
What can you tell from a hematocrit?
Anemia
Travel? At higher altitudes, erythrocytes will be higher
Buffy coat can indicate infection
Leukemia
Plasma
Mostly made up of water
Composed of salts
Plasma proteins
Nutrients, waste, respiratory gases, and hormones are transported
280-300 milliosmoles per liter (we will use 300)
Kwashiorkor
Condition derived from extreme starvation
Body starts using plasma proteins from plasma, and osmotic balance becomes lower, causing water to
leave the blood and brings your number under 300 (edema)
Physical characteristic of blood
Oxygen rich blood is scarlet red
Oxygen poor blood is dull red
pH between 7.35-7.45
Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature at 38 degrees C, transfers heat through the
body
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~90% water
6-8% proteins which: increase osmotic pressure, buffer H+, increase blood viscosity, and provide fuel
during starvation (not preferred)
3 major classes of plasma proteins (mostly synthesized in liver)
Albumins- major contributor to plasma oncotic osmotic pressure and act as carriers
Globulins- carriers, clotting factors, precursor proteins
Fibrinogen- blood clotting
Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins
Wastes: urea, bilirubin, creatinine
Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide
Hormones
Electrolytes (aka salts, ions)
High concentrations of Na+ and Cl-
Low concentrations of H+, HCO3-, K+, and Ca2+
Ringer’s Solution
A solution of distilled water containing electrolytes and compounds so that the same concentrations as their
occurrence in body fluids
This solution is iso-osmotic to our blood and tissues
Why? 280-300 milliosmoles per liter
Blood and other tissue osmolarity must be equal
The lower the number of osmolarity, the higher concentration of water
Osmosis
The movement of the solvent (water)
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