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Lecture 4

BIOL600 Lecture 4: BSCI202 Exam 1.docx

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BIOL 600
Kyle Smith

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Blood 2/5/15 9:04 AM
The only fluid tissue in human body
Classified as connective tissue
Components of blood
1) Living cells called formed elements
Erythrocytes – red blood cells – transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes – white blood cells - defend against bodies pathogens
Platelets – cell fragments formed from megakaryocytes, important in blood clotting
2) Non-living matrix: plasma is the fluid and solutes
-cytes means it is a mature cell type
-blasts means it is an immature cell type
Blood Hematocrit
When blood is centrifuged
Erythrocytes sink to the bottom (45% of blood, percentage known as hematocrit)
Buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets (less than 1% of blood), the buffy coat is a thin whitish layer
between the erythrocytes and plasma
Plasma rises to the top (55% of blood)
Average blood volume
Women: 5.0 L
Men: 5.5 L
What can you tell from a hematocrit?
Travel? At higher altitudes, erythrocytes will be higher
Buffy coat can indicate infection
Mostly made up of water
Composed of salts
Plasma proteins
Nutrients, waste, respiratory gases, and hormones are transported
280-300 milliosmoles per liter (we will use 300)
Condition derived from extreme starvation
Body starts using plasma proteins from plasma, and osmotic balance becomes lower, causing water to
leave the blood and brings your number under 300 (edema)
Physical characteristic of blood
Oxygen rich blood is scarlet red
Oxygen poor blood is dull red
pH between 7.35-7.45
Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature at 38 degrees C, transfers heat through the
~90% water
6-8% proteins which: increase osmotic pressure, buffer H+, increase blood viscosity, and provide fuel
during starvation (not preferred)
3 major classes of plasma proteins (mostly synthesized in liver)
Albumins- major contributor to plasma oncotic osmotic pressure and act as carriers
Globulins- carriers, clotting factors, precursor proteins
Fibrinogen- blood clotting
Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins
Wastes: urea, bilirubin, creatinine
Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide
Electrolytes (aka salts, ions)
High concentrations of Na+ and Cl-
Low concentrations of H+, HCO3-, K+, and Ca2+
Ringer’s Solution
A solution of distilled water containing electrolytes and compounds so that the same concentrations as their
occurrence in body fluids
This solution is iso-osmotic to our blood and tissues
Why? 280-300 milliosmoles per liter
Blood and other tissue osmolarity must be equal
The lower the number of osmolarity, the higher concentration of water
The movement of the solvent (water)

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Blood  2/5/15 9:04 AM Blood The only fluid tissue in human body Classified as connective tissue Components of blood 1) Living cells called formed elements Erythrocytes – red blood cells – transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Leukocytes – white blood cells ­  defend against bodies pathogens Platelets – cell fragments formed from megakaryocytes, important in blood clotting 2) Non­living matrix: plasma is the fluid and solutes ­cytes  means it is a mature cell type ­blasts  means it is an immature cell type Blood Hematocrit When blood is centrifuged Erythrocytes sink to the bottom (45% of blood, percentage known as hematocrit) Buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets (less than 1% of blood), the buffy coat is a thin whitish layer  between the erythrocytes and plasma Plasma rises to the top (55% of blood) Average blood volume Women: 5.0 L Men: 5.5 L What can you tell from a hematocrit? Anemia Travel? At higher altitudes, erythrocytes will be higher Buffy coat can indicate infection Leukemia Plasma Mostly made up of water Composed of salts Plasma proteins Nutrients, waste, respiratory gases, and hormones are transported 280­300 milliosmoles per liter (we will use 300) Kwashiorkor Condition derived from extreme starvation Body starts using plasma proteins from plasma, and osmotic balance becomes lower, causing water to  leave the blood and brings your number under 300 (edema) Physical characteristic of blood Oxygen rich blood is scarlet red Oxygen poor blood is dull red pH between 7.35­7.45 Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature at 38 degrees C, transfers heat through the  body ~90% water 6­8% proteins which: increase osmotic pressure, buffer H+, increase blood viscosity, and provide fuel  during starvation (not preferred) 3 major classes of plasma proteins (mostly synthesized in liver) Albumins­ major contributor to plasma oncotic osmotic pressure and act as carriers Globulins­ carriers, clotting factors, precursor proteins Fibrinogen­ blood clotting Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins Wastes: urea, bilirubin, creatinine Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide Hormones Electrolytes (aka salts, ions) High concentrations of Na+ and Cl­ Low concentrations of H+, HCO3­, K+, and Ca2+ Ringer’s Solution A solution of distilled water containing electrolytes and compounds so that the same concentrations as their  occurrence in body fluids This solution is iso­osmotic to our blood and tissues Why? 280­300 milliosmoles per liter Blood and other tissue osmolarity must be equal The lower the number of osmolarity, the higher concentration of water Osmosis The movement of the solvent (water) Water moves from low solute to high solute Water moves from high solvent to low solvent Blood Plasma Acidosis: blood becomes too acidic (less than 7.35) Alkalosis: blood becomes too basic (greater than 7.45) In each scenario. The respiratory system and kidneys help restore blood pH to normal Complications with acid­base disturbance Conformation change in protein structure Changes in excitability of neurons Changes in balance of other ions Cardiac arrhythmias Vasodilation/vasoconstriction Acids Proton (H+) donors Strong acids dissociate completely and liberate all of their H+ in water Weak acids, such as carbonic acid, dissociate only partially Bases Proton (H+) acceptors Strong bases dissociate easily in water and tie up H+ Weak bases, such as bicarbonate ion and ammonia, are slower to accept H+ Formed Elements Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) Platelets (cell fragments) Developmental Aspects of Blood Cells The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month Fetal hemoglobin differ from hemoglobin produced after birth, fetal hemoglobin has a gamma subunit in  place of the beta subunit and higher affinity for oxygen Physiologic jaundice results when the liver cannot rid the body of hemoglobin breakdown products fast  enough Erythrocytes (RBCs) Carry oxygen Anatomy: Biconcave disk: large surface area favors diffusion Essentially bags of hemoglobin Anucleate Very few organelles No mitochondria Use anaerobic glycolysis 5­6 billion RBC’s per ml of blood flexible membrane also function to maintain osmolarity and blood/plasma pH Hemoglobin in RBC Hb binds strongly (but reversibly) to oxygen Globin + 4 heme groups = 4 polypeptides and heme = iron­containing group Iron­containing protein Can also bind to CO2 and H+ Formation of RBCs Mature RBCs are unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins Wear out in 100 to 120 days Eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen and liver Iron is a component of hemoglobin Hemoglobin content of blood Men: 13­18 gram/dL Women: 12­16 gram/dL Rate is controlled by a hormone called erythropoietin Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood (sensed by  chemoreceptors) Homeostasis is maintained through negative feedback from blood oxygen levels Control of Erythrocyte Production Normal blood oxygen levels: 100 mmHg Imbalance: 60 mmHg Anemia Decrease in the oxygen­carrying capacity of blood Dietary anemia Iron­deficiency Pernicious: lack of vitamin B12 Hemorrhagic anemia: bleeding Hemolytic anemia Malaria or sickle cell anemia Aplastic anemia: bone marrow defect Renal anemia: kidney disease Leukocytes (WBCs) Crucial in body’s defense against disease Have nucleus and organelles Able to move in and out of blood vessels Can move by amoeboid motion through tissues Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues (cytokines) 4000­11000 WBC per cubic millimeter (microliter) of blood 2 Major Classes of WBCs Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained Possess lobed nuclei Include: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Neutrophils  Multilobed nucleus with fine granules 40­70% of leukocytes in blood Phagocytes at active sites of infection Secrete cytokines Circulate in blood 7­10 hours Migrate to tissues for a few days Increase in number during infections Eosinophils 1­4% of leukocytes large brick­red cytoplasmic granules Phagocytes (not main mechanism of action Defend against parasites like worms Granules contain toxic molecules that attack parasites Basophils Less than 1% of leukocytes Non­phagocytic May defend against large parasites by releasing toxic substances Contribute to allergic reactions Agranulocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Nuclei are spherical, oval shape Monocytes become macrophages 4­8% of leukocytes phagocytes new monocytes circulate in blood for a few hours then migrate to tissues ▯ macrophages wandering macrophages fixed macrophages Lymphocytes 20­45% of WBCs 3 types B lymphocytes Effector B cells: become plasma cells and secrete antibodies Memory B cells B cell contacts antigen ▯ then become a plasma cell Plasma cell secretes antibodies Antibodies mark antigens for destruction T lymphocytes Secrete cytokines that enhance activity of B cells and other T cells enhances activity of macrophages and  NK cells Cytotoxic T cells kill virus­infected cells, abnormal cells, and bacteria Memory T cells used for reoccurring infection Null cells Recognize abnormal or infected cells cause lysis by secreting perforins Can attack virus­infected cells without identifying virus Early disease against viral infections Cause lysis Fast­acting early immune response Leukocyte Issues Abnormal members of leukocytes Leukocytosis­ WBC count above 11000 leukocytes/mm^3 Leukopenia­ abnormally low leukocyte level; commonly caused by certain drugs such as corticosteroids or  anti cancer agents Leukemia occurs when bone marrow becomes cancerous, turns out excess WBC Platelets Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells Needed for clotting process Normal platelet count = 300000 mm Hematopoiesis Blood cell formation Occurs in red bone marrow All blood cells are derived from a common stem cell (hemocytoblast) Hemocytoblast differentiation Lymphoid stem produces lymphocytes Myeloid stem produces all other formed elements Erythrocyte synthesis stimulated by erythropoietin secreted from kidneys under conditions of low oxygen  levels in blood flowing to kidneys Formation of WBC and Platelets Controlled by hormones Thrombopoietin stimulates production of platelets Hemostasis Stoppage of bleeding resulting from a break in a blood vessel 3 phases: Vascular spasms Vasoconstriction causes blood vessel to spasm Spasms narrow the blood vessel, decreasing blood loss Platelet plug formation Collagen fibers are exposed by a break in a blood vessel; platelets become sticky and cling to fibers Anchored platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets Platelets pile up to form a platelet plug Coagulation (blood clotting) Platelet components Platelet plug needed for formation of blood clot Colorless Cell fragments No nucleus Has organelles and granules Chemicals that prevent platelet aggregation Prostacyclin Nitric oxide CD39 Aspirin Prevents platelet activation Inhibits the activation of thromboxane A2 Hemostasis Injured tissues release tissue factor (TF3) PF3 (a phospholipid) interacts with TF3 blood protein clotting factors and calcium ions to trigger a clotting  cascade The clot remains as endothelium regenerates Intrinsic and Extrinsic Coagulation Pathways Know the difference Know the common pathway (where the two pathways meet) Factor 10 Prothrombin does nothing Fibrin forms blood clo
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