BIO SCI N120A Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Radiosurgery

4 views3 pages
24 Jul 2019
School
Professor
Professor Nicholas
Course Code 06204
N120A
4 units
Lecture
Cancer:
Cyclin activates kinases which leads to phosphorylation and cell cycle advancement
Oncogenes cause cancer when activated
o Gain of function
o Cyclins, CDKs, RAS
Tumor suppressors cause cancer when inactivated
o Loss of function
o RB, P53, p21, BRCA1 & 2
Treatments:
o Alkylating agents: damage DNA to prevent cancer cells from reproducing
Can cause long term damage to bone marrow
o Antimetabolites: interfere with DNA and RNA growth
Damage cells in S phase
o Anti-tumor antibiotics: interfere with enzymes involved in enzyme replication
Can damage heart
o Topoisomerase or mitotic (nerve damage) inhibitors
o Corticosteroids: suppress immune system, anti-nausea, kills cancer cells
o Hormone therapy: slows growth of breast, prostate, etc.
o Gamma knife radiosurgery: focused, precise, reduced radiation to other muscles
o Bone marrow transplant
Pulmonary/COPD:
Air to lungs has to be warm and moist to promote better gas exchange
Airways lined with cilia which traps mucus and pushes out all the stuff that’s not air
Bronchioles bifurcates to bronchi to alveoli that are wrapped by capillaries
Alveolus: wrapped in alveolar type I cell (white), surfactant layer to prevent adhesion,
macrophage, alveolar fluid, alveolar type II cell (support cell)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
o Chronic bronchitis (mucus in bronchioles)
Expand when breathing in, but can’t get air out
Bacteria gets to lungs inflammation draws WBCs
Leads to air trapping
o Emphysema: damage to compartments of alveoli; left with giant compartments
that can’t conduct gas exchange
o Exacerbators: wood burning stoves, mining, pollution, smoking, campfires, wood,
charcoal, animal dung, coal, particulate matter like bread, females (smaller lungs),
farming dust
Symptoms: rapid breathing, increased work of breathing, chest tightness, air hunger
Caused by: elevated CO2, increased H+, decreased O2
Spirometry tests:
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