CFD 3240 Lecture 10: A Global Perspective

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University of Central Missouri
Child and Family Development
CFD 3240

A Global Perspective • Infant carrying and co-sleeping has been positively related to: o Physical and social-emotional development of infants in traditional cultures • Securely attached infants everywhere show confidence in engaging and exploring • In all cultures, the process by which babies develop secure attachment depends on: o Whether or not they experience contingent responsiveness from their parents and other caregivers ▪ Wherein infants both elicit attention and respond to attention Effects of Parental Sensitivity and Infant Attachment • The short-range benefits of parental sensitivity are that their infants develop secure attachment • The short-range benefits for securely attached infants are that: o They are more responsive in face-to-face play o They have more varied means of communication o They cry less, and quiet more easily when picked up • The long-range benefits for securely attached infants as they grow older are that: o As toddlers, they demonstrate more exploratory behaviors o As securely-attached children, they are competent in a wide array of social and cognitive skills Demand Feeding: An Example of Responsive Caregiving • Throughout the world, and all through history, babies have been fed when they cried to be fed • There is ample research evidence supporting demand feeding • Infants who are fed on demand are more likely to have secure attachment than are infants who receive scheduled feeding • When parents are reliably available to their babies, they learn to trust that their needs will be met Parental Support of Self-Regulatory Behavior • Bedtime is an example of the infant/toddler’s development of self-regulatory behavior • When parents prepare their babies for bedtime, they contribute to their self-regulatory behavior o Examples: singing to them, rocking them to sleep, or reading a book ▪ Those rituals are designed to assist the child in relaxing and settling down • The face to face reciprocity found in those kinds of rituals that increase toddlers’ self- regulatory behavior Parent-Infant Play • Parent–infant play is a significant contributor to the development of parent–infant synchrony • This play is sometimes initiated by the parents and at other times initiated by the infant • Those playful interactions contribute to the development of infant self-control • When playing with their infants, the large majority of parents accurately read infant cues and respond accordingly • Parent-Infant Synchrony o “The Dance” • Parental responsiveness contributes to affective synchrony between parent and child • Parents who smile, laugh, and show joy and pleasure when interacting with their babies have babies who laugh and smile a great deal • There are two main impediments to the initiation and repair of parent–infant synchrony o The parent ignores the infant’s invitation to interact or o The parent over stimulates the baby who wants to pause and rest Parental Influence on Toddler Autonomy and Exploratory Behavior • During Erikson’s Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage of Development o Toddler experiences a conflict between need for assistance and need to be autonomous • Parents s
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