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Lecture 5

POSC415 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Communist Party Of China, Maoism, Jiangxi

Political Science
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Background to Maoism: the Chinese revolution
1920s: a tiny Chinese communist party (CCP) formed an alliance with the nationalist
party (Kuomintang or KMT) led by Chiang Kai-shek
Communist advantage: democratic ideology was discredited by European “liberal
imperialist” treatment of china
Chiang’s northerns expedition of 1927
Chiang allied with warlords to expand his power nationwide
Shanghai massacre: pro-Chiang communist rebels slaughtered by KMT troops
The CCP disaster: the Extermination of campaigns and long march
Chiang’s “extermination campaigns” 1927-34
CCP regrouped under Mao in Kiangsi province
Chiang’s first four “extermination campaigns” defeated by superior CCP
intelligence and mobility (used interior lines vs. concentric attacks)
Fifth extermination campaign in 1934 drove CCP out
Long March, October 1934 - October 1935
Yearlong fighting retreat under constant attack
Survivors under Mao finally able to regroup in Northern China
CCP Resurgence
United front, 1937-45: CCP and KMT allied against Japanese invasion
CCP learned to dominate countryside through shadow government
Reliance on the peasantry is Maos Key change to Marxist doctrine
This is the meaning of Maoism: a peasant-based communist insurgency
CCP propaganda: myth of staunch opposition to Japan gave CCP nationalist
fish in water theory: CCP troops were instructed to treat peasants well, unlike
Basic idea of Maoism
Fundamental importance of political support: must have it before starting to fight
Unity of people and the army not just a slogan
First stage: gain political support
Provide consistent not corrupt justice
Provide security for the population
Provide economic justice land reform
Second stage: guerilla warfare
Hit-and -run tactics allow guerrilla to use space and time as weapons
Strategic logic is attrition
Third stage: conventional offensive to finish the war
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