TXMI 3500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Linear Density, Cellulose, Fineness

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Lecture 4: Fiber Properties
Textile is a material
Fibers are the most basic unit of most fabrics
- Dead, dehydrated cells
Aspect ratio = length/diameter
Fibers have very high aspect ratio
TWO MAIN CLASSES OF FIBERS:
1) Natural Fiber: those that are in fiber form as they grow or develop and
come from animal, plant, or mineral sources
Animals
Plants
2) Manufactured (or man-made) Fibers: Made into fiber form from chemical
compounds produced in manufacturing facilities. Manmade fibers can be
made from natural fibers if you chemically process these natural fibers.
Manmade fibers can be:
o Petroleum based
o Cellulose based
Fiber Structure:
Physical aspects
o Length staple or filament
Staple fibers are short fibers measured in inches or
centimeters
Filaments are long, continuous fiber strands of indefinite
length, measured in miles or kilometers
Filament tow: produced as a loose rope of several thousand
fibers, is crimped or textured, and cut to staple length
o Diameter thickness of fiber (measured in microns)
o Fineness or linear density
Denier measure of fiber fineness/size, dpf=denier per
filament, weight in grams/9000 meters
1-7 dpf most apparel
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