PHIL 232 Lecture 4: Political Philosophy

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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
PHIL 232
Eric Swanson

Political Philosophy Political philosophy: how things should be.. what could be best or objectionable.. political science is just studying what is Ideal theory: if things were perfect, we’d have things like this. Knowing the facts and how things are isn’t as important. Apriori… in your head and you can just think of. Non-ideal theory: what would make things better, approaching.. what is a practical way to go about this when I describe how we can improve things Society vs State Mbuti people have culture and everything to make them a society, but they don’t have a political organization so their society is stateless. No interaction with the government or anything at all. They solve problems not by punishment like prison, but by shunning/reminding you of your place.  There is no single ruling force over another Max Weber “The state has been successful in seeking to monopolize the legitimate use of physical force as a means of domination within a territory.” His definition says that it is sufficient for something to be a state if this^^ Necessary Conditions for physical force to be legit:  Factual conditions: you must have the actual power and legitimate strength and force  Evaluative conditions: you must have the moral authority to be obeyed (for example, how a citizen wouldn’t have the moral authority to use a gun against someone, as a police officer could) Society vs State Conceptual question: what is a state? Moral question: under what circumstances does a person or group have the right to control a society? Conceptual question quickly leads to moral question Hobbes on the function of political states Hobbes says we need political states to save us from ourselves > without them, we will be in a state of
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