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Lecture 4

PHIL 232 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Political Philosophy, Justice As Fairness, Moral Authority

2 pages43 viewsFall 2015

Course Code
PHIL 232
Eric Swanson

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Political Philosophy
Political philosophy: how things should be.. what could be best or objectionable.. political science is just
studying what is
Ideal theory: if thigs ere perfet, e’d hae thigs like this. Koig the fats ad ho thigs are
is’t as iportat. Apriori… i our head ad ou a just thik of.
Non-ideal theory: what would make things better, approaching.. what is a practical way to go about this
when I describe how we can improve things
Society vs State
Muti people hae ulture ad eerthig to ake the a soiet, ut the do’t hae a politial
organization so their society is stateless. No interaction with the government or anything at all. They
solve problems not by punishment like prison, but by shunning/reminding you of your place.
There is no single ruling force over another
Max Weber
The state has been successful in seeking to monopolize the legitimate use of physical force as a means
of domination within a territory. His definition says that it is sufficient for something to be a state if
Necessary Conditions for physical force to be legit:
Factual conditions: you must have the actual power and legitimate strength and force
Evaluative conditions: you must have the moral authority to be obeyed (for example, how a
itize ould’t hae the oral authorit to use a gu agaist soeoe, as a polie offier
Society vs State
Conceptual question: what is a state?
Moral question: under what circumstances does a person or group have the right to control a society?
Conceptual question quickly leads to moral question
Hobbes on the function of political states
Hobbes says we need political states to save us from ourselves > without them, we will be in a state of
Thiks that oo poer should e estalished to sta out of the state of ature… idiidualisti ideas
Prudentialism: put limits on oneself so that one will be better off
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