IR 212 Lecture 3: Lecture 3

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7 Feb 2017
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Week 2 Lecture 3
Thursday Jan 19th
International Regimes and the quest for equilibrium in the modern states system after
Napoleon
Key Terms
- International regimes
- Prince Klemens von Metternich
- Congress of Vienna and the Congress system/concert of Europe
- German Confederation
The French Revolutions challenge to Europe Leading into the Congress of Vienna
Democracy versus Aristocracy
Secularism versus Religion
National pride versus Class Deference
- Economic stress and high taxation (heavy taxation due to the wars initiated by French),
Louis IVX, VX, VIX
- By achieving a revolution in America it results in Britain losing its American colonies and
France goes bankrupt so France comes out the loser not Great Britain 1781-1789 King
Louis VIX (16th) calls a meeting called the Estates General (parliament) and resulted in them
having to raise taxes on the powerful (Aristocrats)
- Negotiate for institutional rights for people other than the king encourages more radical
people to rise up against the whole system (Aristocracy, Church, King, Rich Merchants)
because the King admitted he was broke
- Mass revolution - storming of the bastille, the guillotine and beheaded Louis XVI and
Marie Antoinette (Queen)
- Radicle assertion of power by the ordinary people against the privileged people huge
challenge across Europe because Elites can see what could happen as a result of
oppressing people
- Secularism vs Religion, Estates General included the Church which had been
subordinated to the King, was extremely powerful member of the elite powerholders within
the French System, owned huge amounts of land Church was very rich, the people were
very poor French revolution was about overthrowing the Church Movement for
secularism against religion
- National Pride new understanding of who deserves to be at the centre of the states
efforts in terms of self interest The nation is made up of citizens (word invented by the
French revolution) previously subjects, that change in spirit showed the states job was not to
glorify the king but the nation
- People freely decide to join the army because they think he cause of the army is their
cause, the French Revolution armies start conquering Europe because they have Morale,
they want to fight and believe in the cause of the French Nation
- International Security threat, Napoleon became the representative of the new spirt of
France The Congress of Vienna 1814
- British is the one major power who is trying to fight Napoleon, he eventually
overstretches in Russia (Moscow) and get stuck and defeated by the Russian Winter and
retreat Russia burnt down their own capital, Moscow
- Napoleon stopped democracy by declaring himself Emperor
The Congress of Vienna 1814
· Restores traditional systems of rule across Europe
· Forges balance of power to prevent successful French or Russian bid for Hegemony
· Traditional aristocrats of Europe together, State sovereignty and Raison D’etat wasn’t
enough, need shared values
· Traditional Values Restore the legitimacy of the traditional elites, restore religion,
restore the idea of dividing humanity into higher and lower beings
· Realise Aristocrats are on the same side, new sense of a values consensus among the
elites of Europe against their own people
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