ANT 304 Lecture 12: Mechanisms to conform according to its rule

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8 Feb 2017
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10-03-16 ANT 304
1. Every society has established mechanisms to conform according to its ruler
2. Sanctions are not the same as laws; laws = more complex
a. Sanctions exist in all societies, but laws do not
b. Settling a dispute: argue, compromise, reach a mutually satisfying agreement
i. Negotiation/Mediation: mutually satisfying agreement
ii. Bands & Tribes- Sometimes there is a third party involved, but has no
power over the people fighting
iii. Chiefdoms & States- Adjudication- third party that issues a binding
decision that the disputing parties are obligated to follow and respect
3. One of the responsibilities of the state is the organization and execution of war
a. Most prominent among farming and pastoral populations
4. Among the decentralized political systems warfare is not a method of relieving popular
pressure
a. Hunters and gatherers
b. Everyone participates in making all the decisions- loyalty and cooperation is
given freely since everyone is part of the political system
c. Today: states don’t fight oer food and resources rather oer poer and
influence
i. Brings about a question of legitimacy
1. A form of support for the political system
2. Based on the values that a particular society believes important
3. Grants the right to hold, use, allocate power
ii. Cannot separate religion and laws
1. Religion often influence laws
2. Sinful acts are usually illegal
3. Industrial and non-industrial societies: usually have a belief of the
supernatural and is seen in the government of the place
a. Ex. currency (In God We Trust), pledge
5. TA-p’en-k’eng: “outheast coast of China
a. Neolithic revolution: (slow) process of domestication of plants and animals
b. Earliest Chinese legends, greatest hero of all: Shen Nung
i. Inventor of agriculture
ii. First and greatest herbalist- killed by a poisonous grass
iii. Cultivated plants and made pottery
iv. Invented wooden agricultural tools
v. “pread his ays to the orld
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