ANT 304 Lecture 9: New world: North, Central, and South Americas

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8 Feb 2017
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10-19-16 ANT 304
1. New world: North, Central, and South Americas
a. American southwest: relatively small on a continental scale
i. Durango, CO to Durango, MX
ii. Las Vegas, NV to Las Vegas, NM
b. Excellent exploiters of land
i. Thrifty, excellent explorers
ii. Knew how to use water
iii. Planted- corn, beans, squash, cotton
1. Staples of civilization in the New World
2. Corn- early planting, 10-12 kernels a core, grows in hills, 3-4 ft. in
height due to limited water, produces 3-6 ears of corn,
dependable but relatively small production
iv. Gathering- sunflower, wild tomatoes
v. Farmers relied on wild species as well as cultigens (what they grow)
2. Hohokam- Arizona area
a. Identifying traits
i. Canal irrigation
1. Surviving canal segments- 10 miles long, 18 ft. across, 12 ft. deep
2. U shaped or V shaped
3. Circa AD 800
ii. Figurines (clay/stone)
iii. Pottery making
iv. Elite/ritual items
1. Hard shell
2. Turquoise
3. Copper bells
v. (Scarlet) Macaw- buried bones in corners of rooms
1. Pet
2. Source of colored feathers
3. Worshipped
b. Organized to pull together, communicate, and build large facilities
c. Snaketown- most famous site, ball court
d. Pit houses- common housing
i. Ramp leading into houses
ii. Outlined circular, ovular, rectangular, square
e. Few perishable items have been found b/c all sites are outdoors
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