HSHM 211 Lecture 5: Global Catastrophe 5

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Hist of Science, Hist of Med
HSHM 211
William Rankin

HSHM 211: GLOBAL CATASTROPHE SINCE 1750 2/8/17: The earth sciences as a service  Ideas of pure science and linear model separate science from capitalism 1. But, these are elitist, historically incorrect, and ignore most actual scientists  Natural resources management in the U.S. 1. Collaboration between state and business 2. Neither pure private property nor total state control 3. Today, govt.-funded resource surveys used a. Change from science as public good to science as public service b. Mapping land v. mapping water (historical divergence) c. Professionalization o Science as full-time job d. Many earth science agencies established in 1800s 4. Geological surveys conducted by Europe and U.S. by late 1800s  Era of one-off surveys 1. Sponsored by government a. Maritime missions as well 2. Expeditions a. Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) o Exerting U.S. control over boundary purchase rather than scientific expedition b. U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey (1848-1855) o Marking boundary, also not scientific c. Pacific railroad surveys (1853-1855) o Lay out major infrastructure d. “Four great surveys of the west” o Goals included mapping Grand Canyon, Rocky Mountains, Yosemite, etc. 3. Results of these surveys were expansive despite their narrow rationales a. Discoveries in botany, zoology, paleontology, geology, ethnology o Lewis & Clark: hundreds of new species of plants and animals discovered o Boundary Survey: ethnographic drawings o Pacific railroad: paleontology, drawings and paintings 4. Maritime expeditions a. Wilkes Expedition (1838-1842) o Primary task was surveying and charting o Created volumes on species, “The Races of Man,” scientific theories on oceanic temperatures, etc. 5. Govt. was not funding to support these scientific discoveries 6. “Humboldtian science”: umbrella term for all explorative science a. Unit
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