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Abnormal Psychology Exam Review

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PSYC 3604
Owen Kelly

Abnormal Psychology Review Lecture 1: Standards for Abnormal /Normal Psychology  Cultural Relativism: no universal rule for abnormal behaviour but depends on the cultural norms. Ex: Family members sleep in same bed but in the US they have separate rooms  Unusualness: Is thee behaviour rare? How often does it occur to be considered abnormal?  Discomfort: behaviour is only considered abnormal if an individual suffers as a result of the behaviour  Mental Illness: Are the abnormal behaviours due to mental illness?  Maladaptiveness: (1) Dysfunction: does someone going through a break up still go on with their everyday life (2) Distress: are the symptoms evident (3) Deviance: cultural relativism Theories  Biological Theory: breakdown of some systems of the body; the brain is the organ of the mind, if something goes wrong with the brain it effects cognition  Supernatural theories: curses, demons and spirits are reasons of illness and negativity  Psychological Theories: mental disorders as a result of trauma Treatment  Psychoanalytic Perspective: Focused on the roles of the unconscious  Patient Right Movement: mental patients could recover more if they were integrated into the community where they can interact with others  Behaviourism: Examined the role of reinforcement and punishment in determining behaviour  Cognitive Approach: Recognized that how people think about their world determines their emotions and behaviours Lecture 2: Projective Tests  Inkblot Test: Personality test which involves the evaluation of a subjects response to ambiguous ink blots  Thematic Apperception Test: person's responses reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people  The Sentence Completion Test: Provided with stems and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them  Draw-A-Person Test: Personality and Cognitive Test  Criticisms: Little consensus as to what intelligence is; biased towards middle/upper class education Validity  Face: test appears to measure what it is suppose to measure  Content: Test assesses all important aspects of phenomenon  Concurrent: Test yields the same results as other measures of the same behaviour, thoughts and feelings  Predictive: Test predicts the behaviour it is suppose to measure  Construct: Test measures what it is suppose to measure and not something else Reliability  Test Retest: Test produces the same results when given at two points in time  Alternate Form: Two versions of the same test produce similar results  Internal: Different parts of the same test produce similar results  Interrater: Two or more observers who administer a test to an individual and score it come to similar conclusions. Questionnaires  Symptom Questionnaires: may cover a wide variety of symptoms/ several disorders  Personality Inventories: Assess peoples typical ways of thinking, feeling and behaving  Behaviour Observation: Watching a subject to see behaviour  Self Monitoring: Asking someone to watch your behaviour and keep track of behaviours Diagnostic  Axis 1: Clinical Disorders (Ex. Major depressive disorder)  Axis 2: Personality Disorder/ Mental Retardation (Boarderline)  Axis 3: General Medical Conditions (Type 2 Diabetes)  Axis 4: Psychosocial and Environment Problems  Axis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning Lecture 3: Biological Mechanism  Cortisol is very important for memory, increases cardiovascular and breaks down tissue  Chronic stress leads to mental illness, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and immune disturbance Stress  Multifactorial: Physical, personality, cognitive, environmental, coping strategies  Stress related health problems include: ulcers, asthma, headache, hypertension  Type A: Hostile, Rushed, Competitive ( 2x more likely of having a heart attack)  Women choose emotion focused coping while men choose problem focused coping (emotion focused is worse in the long run) Coping Strategies  Problem Focused Vs Emotion Focused: Solving the problem VS solving the distress caused by the problem  John Henryism: Constantly battling against obstacles that are impossible  Seeking Social Support: Seeking support from people who have had similar experiences  Finding Meaning: Looking for the positive in a stressful situation Sleep Disorder  Due to mental disorder  Due to general medical conditions  Substance Induced  Primary Sleep disorder  Primary Insomnia: Difficulty maintaining sleep for 1 month  Primary hypersomnia: Excessive sleepiness for 1 month  Narcolepsy: Randomly falling asleep for short periods of time  Parasomnias: nightmare disorder, sleep terror disorder, sleepwalking PTSD  Person has been exposed to a traumatic event (person experiences/witnesses near death experience)  The traumatic event is persistently reexperienced (dreams and thoughts)  Persistent avoidence of stimuli associated with trauma  Disasters: fire, Common Traumatic Events; Car accident, War Related: Shell Shock, Abuse: physical and sexual  Treatment: cognitive behaviour therapy, stress management, biological therapy  Acute Stress Disorder: Occurs within 1 month/lasts 4 weeks or less Lecture 5: Depression Symptoms  Cognitive: poor concentration; indecisiveness, poor self-esteem, suicidal thoughts  Psychological/ Behavioural: Sleep/appetite disturbance, loss of memory, fatigue  Emotional: Sadness, depressive mood, irritability  Major Depression: 5+ symptoms including sadness, loss of interest/pleasure (atleast 2 weeks)  Dysthymic Disorder: 3+ symptoms including depressed mood (lasts atleast 2 years)  Depression is the common cold of mental illness  1/3 genetically linked SubTypes of Depression  Melancholic: Most Severe type, Symptoms are worse in the morning, wake up alot at night, worthless feeling  Psychotic: Break from reality (guilt, worthlessness, delusion)  Catatonic: Bed Riden  Atypical: “smiling depression”  Postpartium: in woman after giving birth  Seasonal: onset of depression from season to season Bipolar Disorder  Period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expensive or irritable moods lasting at least 1 week  Decreased need for sleep, more talkative, distractability  Bipolar 1 (Manic); Bipolar 2 (Hypomanic)  Very genetically linked Panic Disorder (Following symptoms must be present)  Recurrent/ Unexpected panic attacks  At Least one of these attacks has to be followed by 1 month - Persistent concerns about having another attack - Worry About Implications of attack - Significant change in behaviour Suicide  Egoistical: feeling alienated from others  Anomic: experience severe disorientation from society  Altrulstic: thinking that taking own life will benefit others Types  Death Seekers: clearly seek to end their life  Death Initiators: Believe they are hastening an inevitable death  Death Ignorers: Intend to end their life but not necessarily end their existence  Death Darers: Open to death and take actions that increase their chances of death  Psychodynamic Theory: Suicide is the extreme expression of anger at the love object who has abandoned them  Mental Disorder: Several mental disorders increase suicide  Impulsivity: people who have a general tendency towards impulsive actions  Cognitive Theories: Hopelessness thinking increases suicide risks Lecture 4: Phobic Disorders  Loss of menstrual criteria  core characteristic. Cannot be formally diagnosed without that. However will be changing in the new DSM Symptoms of Anxiety Panic Disorder – Symptoms In addition, the following symptoms must be present: (1) recurrent, unexpected Panic Attacks (2) at least one of the recurrent, unexpected attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following: (a) persistent concern about having additional attacks (b) worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack, "going crazy") (c) a significant change in behavior related to the attacks B) The Panic Attacks are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance C) The Panic Attacks are not better accounted for by another mental disorder A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes: 1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate 2) sweating 3) trembling or shaking 4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering 5) feeling of choking 6) chest pain or discomfort 7) nausea or abdominal distress 8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint 9) derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself) 10) fear of losing control or going crazy 11) fear of dying 12) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations) 13) chills or hot flushes Panic Disorders Agoraphobia – Symptoms  anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult  The anxiety or phobic avoidance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia Lecture 6: st nd  Lrd Of Thirds: 1 respond well to drug therapy; 2 respond moderately well to drugs, 3 do not respond well to drugs  Too much Dopamine in the brain cause a significant amount of symptoms  Delusion: exist on a continuum (can be very intense, some or no insight, only present during stress etc.) o Persecutory  idea that CIA is after me, the RCMP are trying to break into my house and steal the important letters I have there o Delusions of Reference  mistaken perception of the person’s environmental context. thinking that when they are listening to the news, the news casters are
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